Molecular Endocrinology Questions and Answers – Hormonal Regulation of Fuel Metabolism

This set of Molecular Endocrinology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Hormonal Regulation of Fuel Metabolism”.

1. Which hormone is produced, when an animal is subjected to stressful conditions?
a) Epinephrine and norepinephrine
b) Insulin and glucagon
c) Calcitriol and parathormone
d) Oxytocin and Vasopressin
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In an extreme situation, synaptic impulses from the brain activate the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla when an animal is faced with a stressful condition. In order to promote oxygen absorption, both hormones dilate the respiratory passages, increase the rate and strength of the heartbeat and increase the blood pressure.

2. Which hormone carries out the breakdown of muscle glycogen by lactic acid fermentation?
a) Steroid hormones
b) Epinephrine
c) Oxytocin and Vasopressin
d) Thyroid hormones
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Epinephrine facilitates the lactic acid fermentation for the anaerobic breakdown of muscle glycogen which thereby stimulates glycolytic ATP formation. This activates glycogen phosphorylase and inactivates glycogen synthase by phosphorylation of enzymes dependent on cAMP second messenger.

3. What is the role of cortisol hormone in the adipose tissues for fuel metabolism?
a) Decreases the release of fatty acids
b) Maintains the fatty acid level in an equilibrium
c) Increases the release of fatty acids
d) Helps in the breakdown of fatty acids
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In adipose tissue, cortisol leads to the increased release of fatty acids from the accumulated TAGs (Triacylglycerols). Exported fatty acids are used to fuel other organs, and glycerol is used in the liver for gluconeogenesis.

4. Type 2 diabetes mellitus arise due to the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic cells.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is really a category of disorders in which insulin regulatory function is disordered. Insulin is made, but some of the insulin reaction system features are inaccurate, whereas type 1 diabetes mellitus is due to the autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic cells.

5. Which hormone shifts the fuel metabolism in liver and muscle to fatty acid oxidation?
a) Glucagon
b) Insulin
c) Epinephrine
d) Vasopressin
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Low glucose in the blood causes glucagon production. This induces the liberation of glucose from liver glycogen and transfers the metabolism of fuel in the liver and muscle to the oxidation of fatty acids, sparing glucose for brain usage.

6. Which hormone combination helps in maintaining the blood glucose level to 4.5 mM?
a) Insulin, glucagon, norepinephrine, and cortisol
b) Insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol
c) Insulin, glucagon, epinephrine and oxytocin
d) Insulin, glucagon, epinephrine and vasopressin
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The combined activities of insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol on metabolic processes in many body tissues, particularly in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue, helps to keep the blood glucose level near 4.5 mM. These hormone regulations are primarily in the sense of three natural metabolic states, namely well-fed, fasted, and starving conditions.

7. What is the role of insulin in adipose tissue in the context of fuel metabolism?
a) Inhibits the storage of fat in adipose tissue
b) Insulin helps in the breakdown of fat in the adipose tissue
c) Insulin stimulates the storage of fat in the adipose tissue
d) Insulin partially stimulates the storage of fat in the adipose tissue
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In adipose tissue, insulin induces the accumulation of extra fuel as fat. Insulin also prevents the breakdown of fat in adipose tissue by inhibiting intracellular lipase that hydrolyzes triglycerides to release fatty acids. Insulin stimulates glucose entry into adipocytes, and glucose can be used to synthesize glycerol within those cells.

8. Which channel is critical in the regulation of insulin secretion by beta cells of the pancreas?
a) Voltage gated channels
b) ABC transporters
c) Ligand gated channels
d) ATP-gated K+ channels
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: For the control of insulin secretion by beta cells, the operation of ATP-gated K+ channels is critical. The K+ channels close as ATP increases (indicating elevated blood glucose), depolarizing the plasma membrane and inducing insulin release.

9. Which are the three types of fuel reserves for a healthy adult human?
a) Glycogen, triacylglycerols and tissue proteins
b) Glucose, phospholipids and tissue proteins
c) Glycogen, triacyclglycerols and glycerophospholipids
d) Glucose, triacylglycerols and tissue proteins
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: There are three categories of fuel supplies for a healthy adult human being. They include, glycogen contained in the liver and muscles in smaller amounts, large quantities of triacylglycerols in adipose tissues and tissue proteins that can be depleted when fuel is required.

10. Which metabolic disorder leads to the life-threatening conditions like acidosis and ketoacidosis in humans?
a) Tumor
b) Uncontrolled diabetes
c) Obesity
d) Anemia
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Carboxylic acids that ionize releasing protons are ketone bodies. This acid output will overpower the ability of the blood bicarbonate buffering mechanism in uncontrolled diabetes and generate a decrease in blood pH called acidosis or in conjunction with ketosis, ketoacidosis, which is a life-threatening disorder.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Molecular Endocrinology.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He lives in Bangalore, and focuses on development of Linux Kernel, SAN Technologies, Advanced C, Data Structures & Alogrithms. Stay connected with him at LinkedIn.

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