1. Who is the father of Virology?
a) Martinus Beijerinck
b) Dmitri Ivanovsky
c) John Ellerman
d) Frederick Twort
Explanation: Martinus Willem Beijerinck is often called as Father of Virology. M.W. Beijerinck was a Dutch microbiologist and botanist who was one of the founders of virology and environmental microbiology. In 1898, he gave the phrase “contagium vivum fluidum” which means “living contagious fluid” to describe a virus.
2. What is Virology?
a) Virology is the study of bacteria
b) Virology is the study of viruses
c) Virology is the study of fungi
d) Virology is the study of algae
Explanation: Virology is the branch of microbiology that deals with the study of viruses and viral diseases. Virology mainly focuses on the virus’s structure, classification, and evolution.
3. Who discovered viruses?
a) John Ellerman
b) Frederick Twort
c) Dmitri Ivanovsky
d) Martinus Beijerinck
Explanation: Dmitri Ivanovsky, in the year 1892, discovered the viruses. He found the causal agent of mosaic disease of the tobacco plant which caused the discoloration of the leaf. He was one of the founders of virology.
4. Viruses outside their host cells survive as ____________
Explanation: The viruses outside their host cells survive as virus particles, which are also known as virions. The virion contains the viral genome and is a gene delivery system.
5. Which of the following phase determines the specificity of the virus?
Explanation: The attachment phase determines the specificity of the virus for a particular type of host species. Once the attachment is done, it is followed by penetration, uncoating, biosynthesis, assembly and finally, the release of phage particles.
6. Which of the following is the most common capsid shape of the virus?
Explanation: The most common capsid shape of the virus is icosahedron and helical symmetries. Some of the examples of symmetrical structures are rod, helix, cone, and icosahedron. An icosahedron is an object or symmetry with 20 faces, 12 vertices, and 30 edges.
7. Which of the following genus Puumala virus belongs to?
Explanation: The Puumala virus belongs to the genus Hantavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. It causes nephropathy in humans and may also develop a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.
8. Which of the following viruses help dependovirus for replication?
a) Influenza virus
Explanation: Adenoviruses acts as a helper virus that helps in the replication of dependovirus. However, all the dependovirus does not require adenovirus for replication. The herpes virus may also act as a helper and some dependovirus may replicate even in the absence of helper viruses.
9. Which of the following is not a category of the method of virus detection?
a) Nucleic acid detection
Explanation: Viruses are smaller microorganisms that require electron microscopy to be detection and this requires the concentration in excess. Thus, viruses are usually detected by indirect methods which fall into three categories: multiplication, serology and the detection of viral nucleic acid.
10. Which of the following RNA is present in most of the plant viruses?
Explanation: The majority of the plant viruses have single-stranded RNA as their genome, while most of the fungal viruses have double-stranded RNA and most prokaryotic viruses have double-stranded DNA genomes.
11. Which of the following virus have virions with internal lipid membranes?
a) Ebola virus
c) Rabies virus
d) Influenza virus
Explanation: Iridoviruses are viruses that have a lipid membrane within the virion rather than at the surface. Other examples include tectiviruses and chlorella virus. Rabies, Influenza, and Ebola viruses have lipid membranes at the surface of the virion.
12. Which of the following viruses are icosahedrons?
a) Isometric virus
b) Simple virus
c) Filamentous virus
d) Complex virus
Explanation: Isometric viruses are the viruses that are approximately spherical but are icosahedrons or icosadeltahedrons. Filamentous viruses have simple and helical morphology whereas complex viruses are made up of a combination of isometric and filamentous components.
13. Which of the following family does Measles virus belong to?
Explanation: Measles virus belongs to the family Paramoxyviridae in order of Mononegavirales and currently 49 species are placed under this family, divided among seven genera.
14. Which of the following virus does not use the CXCR4 molecule as a receptor?
Explanation: Poliovirus does not use the CXCR4 molecule as a receptor. It uses a CD155 surface molecule as the receptor. HIV-1, HIV-2, SIV use CXCR4, CCR3, CD4 as the surface receptor molecule.
15. Which of the following organelle prevents the entry of viruses in plant cells?
a) Cell wall
b) Golgi bodies
c) Plasma membrane
Explanation: The cell wall that surrounds the plasma membrane of the plant cells prevents the viruses from attaching and entering the cytoplasm of the plant cell. Thus, plants are infected with viruses with the help of vectors that carry the viral genome into the host plant cells.
16. Which of the following virus is ether-sensitive?
Explanation: Parapoxviruses are ether-sensitive viruses whereas Orthopoxviruses are ether-resistant viruses. Poxviruses are resistant to ambient temperature. It may survive in dried scales for many years.
17. Which of the following virus promotes cell death by apoptosis?
a) Rubella virus
c) Vaccinia virus
d) Myxoma virus
Explanation: Rubella virus, which belongs to the family Togaviridae, expresses proteins that promote the cell death by apoptosis. Vaccinia virus, myxoma virus, herpes simplex virus, etc. are the viruses that inhibit the cell death by apoptosis.
18. Which of the following is not the criteria for the classification of virus-host interactions?
a) Signs and symptoms
b) Duration of infection
c) Production of infectious progeny
d) Size of the virus
Explanation: The categories of virus-host interaction are distinguished on four criteria: the production of infectious progeny, whether or not the virus kills its host cell, if there are observable signs and symptoms, and the duration of infection.
19. Which of the following organ does influenza virus infects?
c) respiratory system
Explanation: Influenza virus infects the respiratory system and causes fever, aching, catarrh, etc. Whereas the hepatitis virus infects the liver. This specificity is achieved largely through the presence of cell receptors on only certain cells in the body.
20. Which of the following viruses are best known for latent infections?
Explanation: Herpes virus is a group of viruses that are best known for latent infections. They infect a wide range of hosts including humans. Once the infection is established the virus remains associated with the host for the remainder of its life.
21. Which of the following virus is spread by arthropods?
b) Influenza virus
Explanation: The viruses spread by arthropods (arthropod-borne virus) are known as arbovirus and the disease spread by arbovirus is known as arboviral disease. The infection usually occurs during warm weather months when mosquitoes and ticks are active.
22. Which of the following virus infects the gastrointestinal tract?
a) Rubella virus
b) Norwalk virus
c) Mumps virus
Explanation: Norwalk virus is the virus that infects the gastrointestinal tract. It causes viral gastroenteritis. It is also known as food poisoning, food infection, stomach flu, and winter vomiting diseases.
23. Which of the following virus affects the liver?
Explanation: Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) is a virus that affects the liver of the organism. It is a picornavirus that is transmitted by the fecal-oral route and causes acute infections of the liver.
24. Which of the following viruses are made by the mass production of virulent viruses?
a) Live attenuated virus vaccines
b) Virion subunit vaccines
c) Live recombinant virus vaccines
d) Inactivated virus vaccines
Explanation: Inactivated virus vaccines are made by the mass production of virulent viruses and then inactivating the infectivity. The inactivation is done usually by treatment with a chemical such as formaldehyde. It is also known as the killed virus vaccine.
25. Which of the following is used in the treatment of infection from RNA viruses?
Explanation: Ribavirin is an antiviral drug used for the treatment of infection from several RNA viruses like hepatitis C virus. It has also been recommended for the treatment of young children infected with the respiratory syncytial virus.
26. Which of the following virus contains dsDNA with enveloped virions?
a) Yabapox virus
b) Human BK virus
c) Human JC virus
Explanation: Yabapox virus is a virus that contains a double-stranded DNA genome with enveloped virions. It is a tumor virus that caused the formation of tumors on the bodies of the monkeys. Human JC virus, BK virus, and adenovirus contain double-stranded DNA with non-enveloped virions.
27. Which of the following is the integrated genetic material of a virus?
a) Virus-like-particle (VLP)
Explanation: The virus infection is caused by the entry of entry of viral DNA into the host cell. After this, the viral DNA is integrated into the host genome. This viral genetic material incorporated into host genome and able to replicate itself is called as provirus.
28. Which of the following complications occur during the infection of poliovirus?
a) Kidney failure
b) ANS involvement
c) Respiratory failure
d) Airways obstruction
Explanation: The complications that occur during the infection of poliovirus are respiratory failure, obstruction of airways, and the involvement of the autonomic nervous system. Kidney failure does not occur due to poliovirus infection.
29. Which of the following is the genome of poliovirus?
Explanation: The poliovirus consists of single-stranded RNA of positive polarity (mRNA) within a protein shell (capsid) composed of 60 capsomeres. The capsid is built up of four proteins and the virion is naked and has a diameter of 28nm.
30. From which of the following rhinovirus cannot be isolated?
Explanation: The rhinovirus cannot be isolated from fecal as they are not present in fecal matter. They can be isolated from the nose, the throat, and the sputum. Special cell culture techniques are needed for virus isolation and are performed in very few laboratories.
31. Which of the following was the first parainfluenza virus isolated?
b) Simian virus
d) Sendai virus
Explanation: Sendai virus was the first parainfluenza virus isolated and is a natural pathogen of mice and is antigenically similar to human PIV-1. It was previously known as the murine parainfluenza virus type 1or hemagglutinin virus of Japan (HVJ).
32. Which of the following genus mumps virus belongs to?
Explanation: The mumps virus belongs to the genera Rubulavirus and is classified under the Paramxyoviridae family. It contains a non-segmented negative-stranded RNA genome and has hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
33. Which of the following genus RSV virus belongs to?
Explanation: The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) belongs to the genera Pneumovirus. It is placed under the family Paramyxoviridae and subfamily Pneumovirinae. The RSV virus has no hemagglutinin or neuraminidase activity.
Chapterwise Multiple Choice Questions on Virology
- Virus Definitions & Animal Viruses Methods
- Viruses Structure & Classification
- Virus Growth in Cells
- Immune System, Virus Neutralization, Animal Viruses, Cells and Hosts Interactions
- Virus Latency Mechanism, Transmission and Evolution of Viruses
- Human Viral Diseases
- Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections, Nomenclature of Animal & Human Viruses
- Antiviral Drugs & Polioviruses
- Coxsackieviruses, Echoviruses, Enteroviruses, Rhinovirus, Coronavirus, Influenza & Mumps
- Respiratory, Measles, Rubella Viruses, Chemotherapy of Viral Diseases and Epidemiology of Viral infections
- Viruses of Humans
1. Virology MCQ on Virus Definitions & Animal Viruses Methods
The section contains Virology multiple choice questions and answers on animal viruses methods, virus discovery, development, multiplication and its properties.
2. Virology Multiple Choice Questions on Viruses Structure & Classification
The section contains Virology questions and answers on viruses structure and classification.
3. Virology MCQ on Virus Growth in Cells
The section contains Virology MCQs on viral infection process.
4. Virology MCQ on Immune System, Virus Neutralization, Animal Viruses, Cells and Hosts Interactions
The section contains Virology multiple choice questions and answers on virus immunology, interactions between animal viruses, cells and hosts.
5. Virology MCQ on Virus Latency Mechanism, Transmission and Evolution of Viruses
The section contains Virology questions and answers on virus latency, transmission and evolution of viruses.
6. Virology Multiple Choice Questions on Human Viral Diseases
The section contains Virology MCQs on human viral infections, hiv and aids, carcinogenesis, tumor viruses, prion diseases, vaccine and antivirals.
7. Virology MCQ on Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections, Nomenclature of Animal & Human Viruses
The section contains Virology multiple choice questions and answers on viral infections diagnosis, animal and human viruses classification and nomenclature.
8. Virology MCQ on Antiviral Drugs & Polioviruses
The section contains Virology questions and answers on antiviral drugs and polioviruses.
9. Virology MCQ on Coxsackieviruses, Echoviruses, Enteroviruses, Rhinovirus, Coronavirus, Influenza & Mumps
The section contains Virology MCQs on coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, enteroviruses, rhinovirus, coronavirus, influenza, parainfluenza and mumps viruses.
10. Virology MCQ on Respiratory, Measles, Rubella Viruses, Chemotherapy of Viral Diseases and Epidemiology of Viral infections
The section contains Virology multiple choice questions and answers on respiratory, measles, rubella viruses, viral diseases chemotherapy and epidemiology.
11. Virology Multiple Choice Questions on Viruses of Humans
The section contains Virology questions and answers on human viruses like parvoviridae, papovaviridae, herpesviridae, poxviridae, reoviridae, bunyaviridae, picornaviridae, togaviridae, flaviviridae, filoviridae, retroviridae, hepadnaviridae and papillomaviruses.
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