This set of Hydraulic Machines Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Heads in a Turbine”.

1. Among the following which turbine requires more head?
a) Pelton Turbine
b) Kaplan Turbine
c) Francis turbine
d) Tube Turbine

Explanation: Except Pelton remaining are reaction turbines, in impulse pressure energy is constant and only available energy is kinetic energy which is directly proportional to head.

2. Total head of turbines is_______

3. Head under which Kaplan turbine is operated______
a) 10-70 meters
b) 70 -100 meters
c) 100-200 meters
d) Above 200 meters

Explanation: Kaplan turbine is reaction turbine and it operates at low head 10-70 meters and output power is 5-200 MW.

4. Head under which Francis turbine is operated?
a) 10-70 meters
b) 70-100 meters
c) 100-200 meters
d) 40-600 meters

Explanation: Francis turbine is also reaction turbine but pressure energy is less when compared with Kaplan turbine. Hence head is between 40 and 600 meters.

5. The turbine is preferred for 0 to 25 m head of water?
a) Pelton wheel
b) Kaplan turbine
c) Tube turbine
d) Francis turbine

Explanation: Kaplan is reaction turbine and its range of operation is between 10-70 meters which has output range between 5-200 MW.
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6. Under what head is Pelton turbine operated?
a) 20-50 meters
b) 15-2000 meters
c) 60-200 meters
d) 50-500 meters

Explanation: Pelton turbine is an impulse turbine only energy available is kinetic energy which is proportional to head, hence it requires high head. Theoretically there is no limit to max value of head.

7. _____________ is difference between head race and tail race.

Explanation: Gross head is the difference in elevation of water levels of fore bay and tail race.

8. The head available at inlet of turbine is ____________

Explanation: It is the available effective head used for production. This is also called as static gross head.

9. Head lost due to friction is given by k*f*L*v*v/D*2g where f- friction coefficient, L- length of pen stock, D- diameter of penstock and” k” is constant and its value is ____________
a) 2
b) 3
c) 4
d) 5

Explanation: The constant determined from the given formula is 4.

10. The difference between gross head and friction losses is ____________

Explanation: Net head is the effective head used to calculate power production. It includes the elimination of frictional losses from the gross head.

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