# Environmental Ocean Technology Questions and Answers – Coastal Hazards Mitigation

This set of Marine Biotechnology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Environmental Ocean Technology – Coastal Hazards Mitigation”.

1. Maximum breaking wave height is a function of ______________
a) water depth
c) salinity
d) demography

Explanation: The maximum breaking wave height at a point along the coast, in general is a function of the water depth at that particular location. The intensity of storm generated waves depends on wind speeds and duration of the storm.

2. Wave breaks when it reaches a height of three quarters of the water depth.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Along the coastline, a wave breaks when it reaches a height of three quarters of the water depth at that location. During calm weathers waves reach breaking heights few thousand feet away from the shoreline while during storm the waves break much nearer to the shoreline.

3. Wave run-up is associated with _____________
a) broken wave, non-breaking wave
b) non-breaking wave alone
c) storm surge
d) hurricane

Explanation: Wave run-up is the distance associated with the distance traveled by a broken or a non-breaking wave up a sloped surface or a vertical wall. Wave-run has the potential to drive large volumes of water and debris against coastal structure.

4. Northeasters are large coastal low-pressure system of _______________
a) storm
b) flood
c) earthquake
d) hurricane

Explanation: The northeasters are a low-pressure system of storms that intensify offshore the coast. Based on the direction of propagation the storm surge drops and elevates while coming across the coast.

5. Floodwaters exceeding a velocity of 10 ft/sec exert tremendous force on structures.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: High velocity floodwaters exceeding a velocity of 10 ft/sec exert a tremendous force on structures and buildings in their path. The hydrodynamic force is related to flood flow velocity and shape of the structure.

6. Wind loads and windborne debris can damage the _____________
a) building envelope
b) internal structures
c) benthic structure
d) submerged structures

Explanation: Elevated wind loads and windborne debris can damage the building envelope that leads to its breaching. After this interior pressurization, roof loss, and structural failure are possible leading to total structural collapse.

7. Hazards such as _______________ can rapidly transform the coast.
a) corrosion
b) sediment changes
c) aquaculture
d) storm-surge

Explanation: Coastal hazards such as the storm surges and waves can rapidly transform the coast by moving large volume of sediments and sands over a short duration. This leads to local changes in the coastline characteristics.

8. Berm is the term for ________________
a) dry beach
b) short-term erosion
c) long-term erosion
d) tropical storm

Explanation: Berm is the term for dry beach above the normal high water line. In short term erosion during severe coastal storms part or entire berm and sand dunes are removed due to high velocity waves.

9. Scour refers to ______________
a) stripping
b) localized erosion
c) tidal barrage
d) groins

Explanation: Scour refers to localized erosion caused by flooding or wave action in the coastal areas. Scours results due to accelerated water velocity around structural elements along the coastline.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Marine Biotechnology.

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