This set of Clinical Science Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Dialysis”.
1. Dialysis commonly refers to ___________
a) heamo dialysis
b) chemo dialysis
c) liver dialysis
d) pancreatic dialysis
Explanation: When the term dialysis is mentioned, it usually means the purification of blood and removal of nitrogenous wastes from the body. It refers to the work done by the kidney by drawing out blood and purifying it.
2. The membrane used for dialysis is made of ____________
b) polyvinyl chloride
Explanation: Cellulose is an easily available material which does not cause any harm to the blood or body. It is cheap and with certain tampering, it’s strength can be increased. It has a good pore size, small enough to stop the blood cells but large enough to pass out the waste products.
3. The latest form of dialysis machine being used has what kind of membrane arrangements
a) Parallel Plate
b) Hollow Fibre
c) Coil Tube
d) Hollow Plate
Explanation: The hollow fibre is dialyzer is a tube like structure with fibers planted in polyurathanes at the opposite ends. This forms hollow pipe like structures for the blood to flow through and allow for the exchange of materials across the membrane.
4. Dialysis can also be used in situations of _________
a) extreme fever
b) acute poisoning
c) low blood pressure
d) blood transfusions
Explanation: When a person is suspected of acute poisoning, the person may be made to undergo dialysis. Poison will be regarded as a toxin by the body and will be removed normally by kidney and liver which may cause damage to these organs. Thus, the blood is extracted out and sent to the dialysis machine so that any harm to the organs and the body can be minimized.
5. The parameters being monitored during dialysis are _________
i. Blood Pressure
iii. Embolus Formation
vi. Flow Rate
v. Albumin level
vii. Repiratory Rate
a) i, ii, vi, vii
b) ii, iii, iv, vii
c) i, ii, iv, v, vi, vii
d) vi, v, vi, vii
Explanation: All the parameters mentioned above are monitored for dialysis but some are monitored before and some after the dialysis. The parameters monitored during dialysis are of blood pressure, embolus formation, pulse, temperature, flow rate and respiratory rate as they directly affect the health of the patient and are indicative of abnormalities.
6. The dialysis that can be performed even at home is ___________
b) Peritoneal Dialysis
Explanation: In this procedure, the diaphragm is used to conduct dialysis. There is cannula which allows the electrolyte to be entered in the body. The electrolytes stay in the body for up to 6 hours during which the person’s blood vessels and diaphragm act as filtering membranes and the unwanted products like creatinine and urea get filtered out. Then the stopper on the cannula is opened once more and the electrolyte is allowed to flow out.
7. The principle behind dialysis is ________
c) Capillary Action
d) Reverse – Osmosis
Explanation: It is the movement of solutes from the area of high concentration to low concentration through a semi permeable membrane. Dialysis is done with the electrolytes flowing through one side and the blood flowing in the opposite direction. The two fluids flow in opposite directions across a semi permeable membrane which causes a pressure to be created and the wastes flow out from the blood to the dialysate.
8. The dialysate consists of __________
a) i, iii, viii,ix
b) vi, vii, ix,
c) i, ii, v, vii, x
d) ii, iii, ix, x
Explanation: Sodium 140.0 mmol / l, potassium 1.0 mmol / l, calcium 1.25 mmol / l, bicarbonate 34.0 mmol / l, magnesium 0.5 mmol / l, chloride 107.5 mmol / l, glucose 5.5 mmol / l. Normally, these ions are present in the blood plasma as well. Since the principle is osmosis under high pressure, also called as ultra-filtration, these salts help create a pressure difference across the membrane. This causes the unwanted materials like creatinine and urea to be filtered out from the blood.
9. How does the doctor diagnose dialysis?
a) GFR via Blood Test
b) Number of WBCs in Blood Test
c) Presence of blood in urine
d) Low urine quantity
Explanation: Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) is used to test if the kidneys are functioning normally. In kidneys, the glomerulus is the site for ultrafiltration, i.e. filtration of blood under high pressure. Everything except cellular components moves out in this phase and the required materials are reabsorbed in the following phases. Thus, if the glomerulus is not functioning well, unwanted wastes like creatinine will be high in the blood which will all get reflected in the GFR. Thus, the doctors will be able to suggest if the person needs to go for dialysis or not.
10. When a subclavian vein or a femoral vein is used for dialysis, what kind of incision/insertion is made?
Explanation: When the femoral vein or the subclavian vein is used to extract blood for dialysis, a simple catheter is used. A simple incision at the site of insertion is made and is used to insert the catheter. Usually, it is filled with heparin & capped to maintain patency between dialysis treatments.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Clinical Science.
To practice all areas of Clinical Science, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.