This set of Clinical Science Problems focuses on “Anaesthesia Pre and Post Care”.
1. The first anesthesia used was ___________
a) polyvinyl chloride
b) trichloro methane
d) tetra fluorocarbon
Explanation: Trichloro Methane, more popularly known as chloroform was the first known and widely used anesthetic. It was used to numb the area, or inhaled as general anesthesia. It was used as a pain reliever and as anesthetic. However, it was found harmful for the kidneys.
2. Which of the following parameters does not affect anesthesia?
a) Blood pressure
b) Blood sugar
d) Moisture content of the exhaled air
Explanation: When a person goes for surgery, certain conditions need to be maintained. They include the blood pressure, blood sugar, pulse oximetry, electrocardiography etc. The moisture content of the exhaled air, though important, but it does not affect anesthesia. If the moisture content falls below, the ventilator adjusts it automatically but the other parameters all need to be monitored by the doctors.
3. Obesity can pose a risk of anesthesia.
Explanation: An obese person is the one whose body mass index is high and they are overweight. Obesity can cause a condition called sleep apnea in which a person snores due to trouble in breathing. Under anesthesia, a person may stop breathing at all for a few seconds which is dangerous for the patient. Thus, if the surgery is not a life saving one, a person is recommended to lose weight before they are operated upon.
4. What is epidural?
a) A type of anesthesia used during childbirth
b) A type of anesthesia used for implants
c) A type of anesthesia used for rheumatic surgery
d) A type of anesthesia used for renal transplant
Explanation: Epidural is when anesthesia is administered in the epidural space of the spinal chord. During a normal childbirth, it is used as a relaxant and dilator. During cesarian, an increased dose is used as anesthesia. Epidural is commonly known for childbirth but is used in many other cases. Sometimes, a catheter is used to continuously administer the drug to prolong the numbing sensation.
5. The anesthesia applied directly to the skin is ___________
a) Topical Anesthesia
b) Caudal Anesthesia
c) Local Blocks
d) General Anesthesia
Explanation: When anything is applied externally on the skin, it is called a topical application. Thus, the anesthesia that is applied directly on the skin is called as topical anesthesia. It numbs a certain region of the skin and allows surgical procedures to happen.
7. In a caudal block, where is the anesthesia injected?
a) Thoracic Canal
b) Lumbar Canal
c) Sacral Canal
d) Coccyx Canal
Explanation: Caudal means the posterior thus the caudal block anesthetizes the lower parts of the body. Since the sacral canal has nerves that supply to the lower regions, thus injecting anesthesia in the sacral region numbs the lower extremities.
8. In this type of anesthesia, all the impulses from a nerve are blocked.
a) Nerve Blocks
b) Spinal Anesthesia
c) Topical Anesthesia
d) Epidural Blocks
Explanation: In a nerve block, the anesthesia is injected in the nerves that supply to the system. When the particular nerve is anesthetized, it becomes paralyzed for the duration of the operation and the whole area where the nerve supplied becomes numb as there is no exchange of information between that area and the brain.
9. In a spinal anesthesia, where all is the anesthetic injected?
a) 1st and 2nd thoracic space, 11th and 12th thoracic space
b) 3rd and 4th Lumbar space, 5th lumbar and 1st sacral space
c) 7th cervical and 1st thoracic space, 12th thoracic and 1st lumbar space
d) 1st and 2nd lumbar space, 4th and 5th lumbar space
Explanation: A spinal anesthesia is given when the lower body is being operated upon. The lumbar region can numb the abdominal areas and allows the operation of the GI track and the sacral area numbs the lower extremities. Since the sacral and coccyx bones are almost fused together, 1st sacral space is the only accessible space.
10. In which of these sub cutaneous infiltration with a desensitizing agent is done?
a) Saddle Blocks
b) Epidural Blocks
c) Local Blocks
d) General Anesthesia
Explanation: In a local anesthesia, the anesthetic or the desensitizing agent is injected in the sub cutaneous region of the skin. This allows a certain region of the body to become numb and the doctors are able to perform the operation. This is done when the area of operation is small or the time needed for the operation is small.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Clinical Science.
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