Clinical Science Questions and Answers – Fractures

This set of Clinical Science Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Fractures”.

1. In a bone, if concavity : elongation :: convexity:_________
a) compression
b) depression
c) suppression
d) extension
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: An important job that a bone is that of weight bearing. It provides a framework for the body. The concavity and the convexity of the bone happen due to weight and this concavity and convexity help in load bearing as well. An extension is another name for elongation.

2. In which of the following injuries to the bone, the bone is actually not broken?
a) Simple Fracture
b) Hairline Fracture
c) Contusion
d) Multiple
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: When a bone is formed, it is spongy and called cancellous. This cancellous gets ossified to form corticle which is the hard bone. In confusion, the corticle is damaged but not the cancellous. Thus, the cancellous gets ossified to form a corticle and a new bone is formed.

3. In fracture, especially in long bones, the body starts giving weight ___________
a) medially
b) axially
c) centrally
d) normally
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: When a part gets fractured, we try to avoid disturbing the injured area. Thus, we lean towards a side and so weight bearing happens medially, i.e. in the side. This part is to be taken into consideration while designing some implant or when giving an assistive device.

4. Which of these fractures necessitates the use of bone cement or some other implant?
a) Multiple Fractures
b) Compound Fracture
c) Simple Fracture
d) Hairline Fracture
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: In a compound fracture, the bone is broken in multiple pieces at the same place. The pieces are so small that it is not possible to put them back together. In such cases, the fractured bone pieces are removed and a plate/implant along with bone cement is used. Depending upon the area affected, the plate and bone cement may be temporary, i.e. the bone is able to grow back or permanent, i.e. the bone will not grow back.

5. Which of the following is an important component for any bone related implant?
a) Titanium
b) Iron
c) Calcium and Phosphorus
d) Calcium Hydroxyapatite
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Calcium Hydroxyapatite is a biomaterial which had properties closest to that of the human bone. It is found in shells of animals and can also be manufactured in labs. Whenever an implant regarding bones is manufactured, they are coated with calcium hydroxyapatite to allow better integration of the implant with the bone and reduce immuno-rejection.
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6. In the bones, the calcium and phosphate ions are organized in which biological structure?
a) Tetrahedral
b) Hydroxyapatite
c) Clustered
d) Random
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The chemical formula of hydroxyapatite is Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. The organization of this molecule is such that it provides strength and support to the structure. Shells of various marine animals are also arranged in this manner which helps them bear the tremendous pressure of the sea.

7. Reorganize the following steps that happen during fracture healing.
i. Weight bearing – Cartilageous callus formation
ii. Weight bearing – Granular tissue formation
iii. Remodeling to original bone contour
iv. Lamellar bone deposition
v. Formation of blood clot and inflammation
a) i, ii, iv, v, iii
b) iv, iii, i, ii, v
c) v, i, iii, iv, ii
d) v, ii, i, iv, iii
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: For the first step in the healing process, there is a formation of the blood clot and inflammation takes place. This inflammation is due to the WBCs destroying all the harmful materials. This area receives more of blood flow to remove the dead WBCs and to provide nutrients. After inflammation, the person is given activities to allow weight bearing. This allows for the nutrients to be better absorbed and the bone to become stronger. The granular tissue is the matrix on which the cartilageous tissue will grow and then get ossified. As the bone heals, weight bearing causes it to regain its old shape.

8. Mr. A met with an accident and his right femur broke at 3 different places. The cut was a clean break and the four pieces were put back together in their original place. What kind of fracture did he have?
a) Contusion
b) Hairline Fracture
c) Multiple Fracture
d) Simple Fracture
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: When a bone breaks at many places but the break is clean and can be put together in its original place or if many bones break together, then these two kinds of fractures are called multiple fractures. In a compound fracture, the bones break into tiny pieces and that too very close together. It is not possible to fit them in their original places so the bones are removed. In Mr. A’s case, a simple support rod along with placing the bones in their original place should help his leg recover.

9. The severity of a ligament injury progresses from ___________
a) strain to tear
b) sprain to tear
c) strain to sprain
d) sprain to strain
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: When a ligament is injured, the severity goes from the sprain to tear. When a muscle is injured, the severity is measured from strain to tear. Sprain/strain both stand for the pull of the fibers. If the pull is small, it will result in simple inflammation. If the pull is severe, it will result in a tear.

10. The following diagram is that of a femur bone. The connecting bone between the ball of the femur and the shaft of the femur has a small bend. What is its significance?
Femur bone diagram
a) It helps in weight bearing
b) For balance
c) For providing better attachment of the ball to the socket
d) No specific reason
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The bend helps in better weight bearing. When an implant is being made, the angle of the bend is also calculated.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He lives in Bangalore, and focuses on development of Linux Kernel, SAN Technologies, Advanced C, Data Structures & Alogrithms. Stay connected with him at LinkedIn.

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