This set of Clinical Science Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Angioplasty”.
1. Angioplasty is _________
a) a minimally invasive surgical procedure
b) a diagnosis
c) an imaging technique
d) a disease of the nerves
Explanation: Angioplasty is a follow up kind of process of angiography. In this process, after catheterization is done, a balloon catheter is introduced to compress the deposited plaque. A stent may be placed to ensure the blockage remains open.
2. Angioplasty is done for __________
a) testing blood pressure
b) opening the blockages in blood vessels
c) suturing the blood vessels
d) detecting plaque
Explanation: Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty is a process by which the blockages in the blood vessels are opened. Blockages are due to the deposition of plaque and they reduce the blood flow. Thus, the vessels narrow out and cause blockages which need to be removed. For this process, a catheter is inserted followed by a balloon catheter. Once the balloon is in place, it is inflated and the plaque and the capillary walls are pushed aside, opening the blockage.
3. What does the plaque constitute of?
a) Carbohydrates and calcium
b) Fats and phosphorus
c) Carbohydrates and phosphorus
d) Fats and calcium
Explanation: When Low Density Lipids (LDL) accumulate in the blood vessels, the WBCs try to remove them by digesting them. However, these WBCs they slowly start to deposit on the walls. This deposition also attracts salts and slowly calcium also gets deposited. This makes the plaque harder. Once there is a small deposition, by the property of cohesion, the deposition keeps growing and finally, the vessel gets clogged badly and blockage happens.
4. Deposition of the plaque in the blood vessels is called as ______________
b) Multiple Sclerosis
c) Tunica Media
d) Tunica Intima
Explanation: Sclerosis stands for hardening. The deposition of the plaque in blood vessels is called as Atherosclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis is a problem occurring in the nerves of the spinal chord. The arterial blood vessel has three layers. Tunica Intima is the innermost layer, the layer blood is in contact with while Tunica Media is the central layer, providing support and acting as a shock absorber.
5. Persistence of the plaque can lead to ____________
i. embolism ii. stroke iii. paralysis iv. diabetes v. coronary thrombosis vi. Alzheimer’s vii. vessel rupture viii. Dementia
a) i, iv, v, viii
b) i, ii, v, vii
c) vi, viii
d) iii, v, viii
Explanation: Embolism and Stroke are situations when a clot has gotten stuck in a blood vessel. This happens because the plaque deposition does not allow the blood to flow freely so some cells may start depositing and coagulating by the capillary wall forming a thrombus (blood clot). Stroke is for the brain while embolism is for a heart. Embolism leads to coronary thrombosis (heart attack). Plaque deposition causes the heart to beat with more force to allow blood flow leading to coronary thrombosis. The deposition of plaque puts more pressure on the walls of the vessels which can cause wall rupture.
6. What are the catheters made of?
a) Polyethylene fluoride
b) Polyethylene terephthalate
d) Polyethylene chloride
Explanation: PET is strong and a sturdy structure. It is a thermoplastic and can inflate to decent levels. A very thin coating of PET is needed to form the balloon. The balloon needs to be able to bear a good amount of pressure while being inflated and should be though to allow the plaque to be pushed aside when being inflated. PET has all these properties and so is a good choice.
7. Medical grade steel for stent making is ____________
Explanation: Steel is classified into austenitic, ferritic, martensitic and duplex depending upon the percentages and different materials used for forming them. Austenitic steel consists of 0.15% carbon and 16% of chromium, nickle and/or manganese. Sometimes titanium may be added to improve strength. Austenitic steel forms a series from number 300. 316 and 316L are used to make biomedical implants like stent.
8. Some tests done before angiography are __________
i. Pregnancy ii. Blood Urea Nitrogen iii. Pulse Oximetry iv. Allergy v. Creatinine vi. Bone Marrow vii. Ezcema viii. Nerve Test ix. Diabetes
a) i, ii, iv, v, ix
b) i, viii, ix
c) viii, ix
d) vi, vii, viii, ix
Explanation: Blood Urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine help check the normal functioning of the kidney and liver. Since the dye used is radioactive in nature, it is important for a lady is pregnant. Allergy test is important because of the dye and instruments being used. Diabetic people need various precautions and must be known. In general, Diabetes, Creatinine and BUN are three major tests that are almost always done before any surgery.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Clinical Science.
To practice all areas of Clinical Science, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.