Clinical Science Questions and Answers – Nutrition

This set of Clinical Science Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Nutrition”.

1. When the food is directly given in the veins, it is called ______ nutrition.
a) Parenteral
b) Enteral
c) Intravenous
d) Saline
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Parenteral nutrition is given to people directly in their veins. The food is in its most basic form, like Amino Acids instead of protein pulses, and can be absorbed by the body directly. It is given when the person is unconscious, has had an operation in the GI tract etc.

2. When food is given in the stomach or intestines directly then it is ________ nutrition.
a) Intravenous
b) Saline
c) Enteral
d) Parenteral
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: This type of nutrition is given to those who have been unconscious or comatose for a longer period of time. The food is normal food but churned into a paste and diluted sufficiently. This food is given directly in the stomach with the help of tubes.

3. A person who has had a renal transplant should regulate the intake of ______
a) carbohydrates
b) proteins
c) fats
d) vitamins
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Kidneys are the site of blood purification and the waste that is flushed out is mostly nitrogenous in nature. This nitrogenous waste is produced due to the breakdown of proteins and amino acids. Thus, to reduce the pressure on kidneys, the intake of proteins is reduced.

4. To overcome diabetes, a person can increase the intake of ______ and reduce the intake of ___________
a) carbohydrates, proteins
b) proteins, fats
c) fats, carbohydrates
d) carbohydrates, fats
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Diabetes is of two kinds, one where the body cannot produce insulin and the second in which the cells have developed resistance to insulin so absorption of glucose has gone down. Thus, the amount of sugar in blood increases. To control this, the level of fat intake can be increased. The lesser amount of fat is needed to satisfy hunger as compared to carbohydrates. Also, the energy produced by oxidation of fat is much higher. Thus, to control diabetes, consumption of carbohydrates is reduced and the intake of fats is increased.

5. For a person suffering from problems like slow neural transmission, eg dementia, they should be given __________
a) increased sodium
b) increased potassium
c) increased calcium
d) increased magnesium
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The cell systems use sodium and potassium to transmit impulses. The neural systems also use these two ions. However, the body uses potassium more than sodium when it comes to transmitting impulses. Thus, when a person is suffering from neural problems, especially when the impulses are being transmitted slowly, increasing the levels of potassium in the body helps stabilize it.

6. A person who is suffering from high blood pressure should cut down on _______
a) sodium
b) potassium
c) calcium
d) magnesium
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Sodium and potassium are used by the body to conduct impulses but unlike potassium, sodium is a much smaller ion. This means it has higher electropositivity and a higher capacity to attract negatively charged ions. It attracts water molecules and causes water retention, something which is very harmful to a patient suffering from high blood pressure. Thus, their sodium intake is reduced so that the excess water is not held back in blood and the pressure on the heart to circulate the larger volume of blood reduces.

7. Long periods of parenteral nutrition is not recommended because of ______
a) it increases the toxicity of blood
b) it puts pressure on the kidney
c) it puts pressure on the heart
d) it causes the GI track to degenerate
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: When the functioning of an organ system reduces, it starts degenerating. The same happens with GI track. If parenteral nutrition is given for a long period of time, then even though the body will meet its nutritional needs but the GI track will start degenerating.

8. In cases of renal insufficiency, what should take in place of proteins?
a) Triglycerides
b) Essential Amino Acids
c) Glucose
d) Vitamin K
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: A protein is a long chain of various amino acids which may or may not be needed by the body. Since proteins are the building blocks of the body, doing away with proteins cannot be done however taking proteins will harm the damaged kidney. In such cases, essential amino acids are ingested instead of taking in proteins. These essential amino acids are directly absorbed by the body. This allows the body to function normally and the pressure on the kidney is kept at the minimum.

9. In cases of muscle fatigue, which of the Vitamin should be taken?
a) A
b) D
c) E
d) K
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Vitamin D helps the bones and muscles in absorbing various nutrients. When the levels of Vitamin D in the body go down, the muscles feel fatigued as they are not able to absorb the nutrients. The melanin pigments of the skin in the presence of sunlight produce Vitamin D but in case the levels go down, then Vitamin D is orally taken or injected in the muscles.

10. Which Vitamin in large amounts harms the bones?
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Vitamin C is essentially Citric Acid. It is found in citric fruits like oranges and lemons. Necessary amounts are needed to keep away colds and reduce the levels of toxicity of the body. It helps keep the skin clean and pimple free but it is still acidic in nature. Excess consumption of Vitamin C can cause the acid to react with the bones where most of the minerals are and causes the bones the bones to become weak.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Clinical Science.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He lives in Bangalore, and focuses on development of Linux Kernel, SAN Technologies, Advanced C, Data Structures & Alogrithms. Stay connected with him at LinkedIn.

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