This set of Clinical Science Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Organization of Theaters”.
1. Before reaching the operation theater, how many zones exist?
Explanation: Before entering an OT, normally there will be three zones. The outermost zone is a waiting zone, until where the patient may be accompanied by a family member. Here is also a nursing management station where the nurses and doctors go through the final paperwork for operation. The next zone is the changing zone. The changing rooms are right next to the entry so that the doctors, nurses, and technicians can immediately change into their OT scrubs. Even the shoes need to have a covering or normally they have different pairs of shoes and slippers in the changing room. Beyond that is the anesthesia room where the vitals are monitored for one last time and anesthesia is administered. Finally comes the operation theater. Within the zones, there are often resting chambers for the OT staff, offices of the surgeons, pharmacy and supply door to C.S.S.D.
2. How many sections are there in the operation table?
a) 1 – 3
b) 4 – 5
c) 6 – 7
d) 7 – 8
Explanation: The table is divided in such a way that during an operation a certain area of the body can be elevated and it allows better access to the area to the surgeon. The main four divisions of the bed are for the head, thorax, thigh and then legs. Sometimes, there is a support for the waist in the abdomen and leg pelvic region.
3. What kind of lights exists in the OT?
a) Fluorescent Lamps
b) LED lights
c) Tungsten Light
Explanation: LED lights are also called shadow less lights. This is the reason they are widely used in operations as the shadow of the surgeon and nurse is not cast on the patient then. They can also produce an illumination of 70,000 – 1,20,000 lumen which ensures sufficient brightness in the theater.
4. When a baby is born, why are they placed under UV lamps?
a) To reduce the possibility of skin disease
b) To reduce the possibility of jaundice
c) To ensure proper blood flow
d) To allow the bones to absorb nutrients
Explanation: After birth, the liver of an infant becomes very active. This is because the environment of the child changes completely and to ensure that the body is under no harm, the activity of the liver increases. This increased activity causes a rise in the production of bile pigments and causes jaundice. To ensure that jaundice does not harm the baby, a baby after birth is placed under mild UV light and kept for monitoring.
5. What is all usually present in an OT trolley?
i. Bandages ii.Basic Medicines iii. Disinfectants iv. Antiseptic v. Cannula vi. Syringe vii. Catheter
a) i, ii, iii, iv
b) i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, vii
c) ii, iii, iv
d) iii, iv, vi
Explanation: An OT trolley is used to carry all the things that are needed in surgery. Most of the products are brought in from the CSSD but some like medicines, antiseptics etc are already there in the trolley.
6. What is the ratio of the gases in medical air?
a) 78% Nitrogen, 21 % oxygen
b) 75 % Oxygen, 25 % Carbon dioxide
c) 60% Nitrogen, 20% Oxygen, 20% Carbon Di oxide
d) 50% Nitrogen, 50% Oxygen
Explanation: Medical air is like normal air, but has been treated in air plants. It is used to provide air to the patients during or after surgery and maintain the normal respiratory functions.
7. How are the OT ventilated?
a) Air is blown in from the lower part of the wall
b) Air is sucked out from the upper region of the wall
c) Air is blown in from the lower part and sucked out from the upper part
d) Air is blown in from the upper part and sucked out from the lower part
Explanation: This kind of ventilation system should actually exist throughout the hospital. The air which passes through various filters is pumped in and the air in the room is pulled out from the lower regions. This forms a steady air current and fresh, treated air is constantly circulated. This reduces the chances of nosocomial infections and wound festering.
8. What is the general equipment found in OT?
i) OT Trolley ii) Heart Lung Machine iii) Pendant iv) Ventilator v) Electron Microscope vi) Medical Air Tank vii) Intubation Equipment viii) Fire Extinguisher
a) i, iii, iv, vi, vii
b) i, ii, iii, iv, v, vi, vii, viii
c) ii, iii, vi, vii
d) i, iii, iv, vii, viii
Explanation: In a general OT room, there is a trolley, a pendant (it sockets for connections and shelves to hold things) a ventilator, medical air tank and intubation equipment. Sophisticated machines like the heart lung machine or the electron microscope are present in OTs that specialize in cardiac surgery or neurosurgery. A fire extinguisher may be found outside in the hallways but not necessarily in an OT.
9. What is the resolution of the microscopes used in neurosurgery?
a) 1 μm
b) 1 nm
c) 1 Åm
d) 1 pm
Explanation: A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used in neurosurgery. It can give a good resolution up to 1 nm. Neurosurgery deals with nerves and neurons and it needs good magnification and resolution to look into the structures properly.
10. For how long can a heart lung machine be used?
a) 4 hours
b) 6 hours
c) 8 hours
d) 10 hours
Explanation: A heart lung machine or rather a cardiopulmonary bypass machine is used during a cardiac surgery. The machine acts like the heart, it receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and sends it to the body. It receives deoxygenated blood from the body and sends it to the lungs. However, since its a machine, various problems like clotting, leakage, air bubble etc may happen so it is recommended that the machine is not used for more than six hours. Under extreme precautions and severely critical cases, it can be used for ten hours.
11. In which of the following is not used for suturing?
Explanation: Suturing is the process of closing the wound. It is either stitched back or stapled back. Various different materials are used to suture the wound. Bakelite is hard, non flexible material so it cannot be used as a suture thread but recent trials are being made to develop a suturing needle from Bakelite.
12. What are all precautions taken for a patient directly out of surgery?
a) The injury should not be infected
b) The person must take a bath
c) The blood pressure should go down
d) The blood sugar should go up
Explanation: For a person directly out of surgery, the main concern is that the site of operation and injury should not be infected. An operated person is given a sponge bath if the need arises but mostly after surgery, they should keep away from water. The parameters that were observed before and during the surgery, the same parameters are monitored even after the surgery.
13. The following steps are for _______
i. Alcohol with Chlorhexidine ii. Alcohol without Chlorhexidine iii. Chlorhexadine 2% iv. Chlorhexadine 4% v. Povidone with Iodine 7.5% – 10% vi. Triclosan 1% vii. Phenolics viii. Quarternary Ammonium Compound ix. 3% hexachlorophane
d) hand washing
Explanation: Before and after surgery it is important to wash hands properly. The above given steps are used to wash hands properly with procedure and chemicals that are used. The movements of washing the hands also need to be followed carefully.
14. What are the temperature and humidity maintained in an OT?
a) T = 20 – 26 ℃, H = 20% – 30% air exchanges = 7 – 8 per hour
b) T = 18 – 22 ℃, H = 40% – 50% air exchanges = 10 – 12 per hour
c) T = 10 – 12 ℃, H = 10% – 30% air exchanges = 9 – 10 per hour
d) T = 30 – 35 ℃, H = 50% – 60% air exchanges = 15 – 20 per hour
Explanation: An OT is normally cool without being cold. The humidity and temperature need to be maintained so that the body does not go into any other kind of shock. Once under anaesthesia, the normal functions like homeostasis of the body can also get disrupted thus an external maintenance is needed. It is important for fresh air to keep circulating in the room so that the risk of infection goes down. The number of exchanges can’t be too high to avoid cooling nor can they be too low or else infectious particles may settle down.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Clinical Science.
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