This set of Clinical Science Interview Questions and Answers focuses on “Laws of Gases, Uptake of Anaesthetic Gases and Vapours, Patient Monitoring During Surgery”.
1. After oxygenation of blood, what is the percentage of oxygen carried by hemoglobin?
a) 70 %
b) 75 %
c) 87 %
d) 97 %
Explanation: After oxygenation, the partial pressure of oxygen increases. At this point, arterial blood has 0.29 ml oxygen in 5 ml of blood and veins have 0.12 ml of oxygen in 5 ml of blood. This way, we find that 3% oxygen is carried dissolved in the blood and 97% in a hemoglobin.
2. What is the pressure of gases maintained in medical air supply?
a) 300 – 345 kPa
b) 345 – 380 kPa
c) 380 – 400 kPa
d) 400 – 425 kPa
Explanation: The gases are usually under a higher pressure to allow more filling up of the cylinder and better control of the temperature. Also, it helps them travel long distances more easily.
3. What is the residual capacity of the lungs?
a) 2000 ml
b) 2300 ml
c) 2500 ml
d) 2700 ml
Explanation: Residual Lung capacity is the amount of air that stays in the lungs after normal expiration. Lungs normally have 2800 ml is a normal volume in which the tidal volume is 500 ml. This is the amount of air taken in and given out normally. Since the left side of the lung is little smaller to accommodate the heart, there are some minor volume differences between the two lungs.
4. What all modes exist in ventilator?
a) Neonatal mode, normal mode
b) Normal mode, geriatric mode
c) Neonatal mode, normal mode, geriatric mode
d) Neonatal mode, pediatric mode, normal mode, geriatric mode
Explanation: A neonate has very delicate lungs so they need special care during ventilation. Thus, they have a separate mode. In modern ventilators, there is separate kind of ventilators, especially for the neonates. All the other population is kept on the normal mode.
5. The operation which allows air to be given directly in the trachea is called ________
c) Disc Prolapse
d) Clog Removing
Explanation: Tracheotomy is a process in which an incision is made on the throat and the respiratory passage is accessed. A tube is directly inserted in the passage and the ventilator is used to send air into the tube. Thus, the air is given directly in the trachea and lungs. This happens in very severe cases when the person is not able to breathe by themselves.
6. The pump used to pump air mechanically into the respiratory tract __________
a) Mechanical Pump
c) Ambulatory Bag
Explanation: An ambulatory bag has a mouth piece which is placed in the mouth of the patient and a rubber bulb which is used to pump air. It is a self-inflating bag and so it keeps getting air. Once the bulb is compressed, the air is sent back to the patient in their respiratory tract.
7. A ventilator can sometimes cause a disruption in the normal breathing pattern.
Explanation: Ventilator is supposed to ensure proper oxygen supply during operation. Depending on parameters like heart rate, weight, etc ventilation pattern is selected and adjusted for the patient and the ventilator follows that. Often times, this ventilator pattern may clash with the normal breathing of the person. It may send in oxygen when the person is trying to exhale or the breathing of the device may not be synchronized.
8. Prolonged bed rest can lead to which problem?
d) Hyper Tension
Explanation: When a person is lying down for long periods of time, the most commonly known problem that occurs is bed sores. However, long periods of bed rest also causes water to be slowly accumulated in the lungs. Due to the horizontal posture of the body, the body is not able to expel microorganisms as properly as it does in the vertical posture. The existing and accumulated water in the lungs becomes their breeding ground and the person suffers from tuberculosis.
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