This set of Clinical Science Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Artificial Organs – 1”.
1. Which of the following artificial organ has been mechanically reproduced in a compact form?
Explanation: The heart has four chambers, 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. The auricles receive blood from the body and the ventricles pump blood to the body. A few designs of total artificial heart has come into the market where the artificial heart behaves like the normal human heart.
2. What is the difference between a pacemaker and the total artificial heart (TAH)?
a) A pacemaker is smaller in size and completely embedded in the body as compared to TAH in which some system lies outside the body
b) A pacemaker replaces only the ventricles but a TAH replaces the whole heart
c) A pacemaker is an assistive device which helps the original heart to generate impulses but a TAH completely replaces the heart
d) A pacemaker is made out of organic polymers while the TAH is metallic
Explanation: As the answer says, pacemaker is an assistive device. The heart contracts due to the impulses generated by the SA node and the AV node. When these nodes are unable to generate signals, a pacemaker is used. A TAH is needed when the Purkinjee Fibers that cause the contractions in ventricles or the any of the cardiac muscles are damaged.
3. After extraction, how long can the heart survive outside the body before being transplanted?
a) 2 hours
b) 4 hours
c) 6 hours
d) 8 hours
Explanation: After the heart has been removed from the body, it can be kept alive for 4 hours. It is placed in a cool box where the temperatures are monitored to keep the heart alive. A miniature heart lung setup is also used where the blood is made to circulate in the heart and it is kept alive. When this heart reaches the site of transplant, the doctors assess if the heart is still healthy and fit enough to be transplanted. After this, the transplantation takes place.
4. A liver performs multiple functions and is also one of the heaviest organs in the body, second only to the brain. So, when an artificial liver is being produced, recreating what physical property of the liver poses a challenge?
a) mass of the cells
b) volume of the cells
c) density of the cells
d) size of the cells
Explanation: A liver performs various functions like destroying toxic substances, producing bile, a breakdown of the old and decaying blood cells etc. However, for this to happen, the liver needs a large number of cells but in a small area. Thus, this increases the density of the liver. So, one of the biggest problems is recreating the density of the cells.
5. In a heart, what is most commonly replaced?
a) Artery and/or Vein
Explanation: The valves of the heart regulate the incoming and outgoing of the blood which can cause mechanical stress to them and lead to stenosis. Due to this stenosis, the valves do not close properly and so regurgitation of blood or dripping of blood may happen which can cause cardiac problems. Once these valves are replaced, the normal functions of the heart can be recovered.
6. Jarvik 7 and AbioCor are names of _________
a) Artificial Brains
b) Artificial Hearts
c) Artificial Liver
d) Artificial Kidney
Explanation: Jarvik 7 was the first artificial heart to be made and approved. It had two heart pumps and a power console. The heart pumps were placed where the original heart was supposed to be. It receives air from outside which allows the pumps to contract and cause circulation of blood.
AbioCor was the second type of artificial heart to be developed. In this, the atrium is functioning well but the ventricles have been removed. AbioCor pumps the blood from one ventricle at a time so the body and lungs get blood alternatively. To make up for this, AbioCor has the capacity to pump 10 liters of blood in a minute.
7. Which of the following heart valves are mechanical valves?
i. Ball Valve
ii. Autograft Valve
iii. Xenograft Valve
iv. Single Leaflet Valve
v. Homograft Valve
vi. Bi leaflet Valves
a) i, ii, iv, v
b) i, iv, vi
c) ii, iii, v
d) iii, v, vi
Explanation: The ball valve, the single leaflet valve and the bileaflet valves are artificial mechanical valves. The incoming or the outgoing blood exerts pressure on these valves and open them, allowing the blood to flow. Once the normal flow of blood due to heart contractions has ceased, the valves close. The Autograft valve, Xenograft Valve and Homograft valves are all valves that have been taken from living beings. The autograft valve is taken from the same human being, mostly from the inferior vena cava. Xenograft valve is a bovine(cow) or a porcine(pig) valve. Homograft valves are valves taken from another human.
8. In order to maintain the levels of sugar in the blood, what devices are commonly being used?
b) Insulin Pump
c) Gluco Strips
d) Potable Pulse Oximeter
Explanation: Insulin pump almost works like an artificial pancreas. They have detectors which keep monitoring the amount of sugar in the blood periodically and if the sugar exceeds normal levels, insulin is injected in them. Glucometer and Gluco Strips are ways of checking the amount of sugar in the body. If these devices are used then the insulin needs to be given manually. Potable pulse oximeter is used to measure the amount of oxygen in the blood which can be indicative of the amount.
9. In which of the following problems does the body develop a resistance to insulin?
a) Type 1 Diabetes
b) Type 2 Diabetes
c) Insulin Shock
d) High Blood Pressure
Explanation: Type 2 Diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. In this, the body produces a sufficient amount of insulin but the cells are unable to absorb the required amount in the body. This causes the glucose to stay in the bloodstream. In type 1 diabetes, the body is unable to produce sufficient amount of insulin.
10. Transplant of which organ may also cause a liver transplant in future?
Explanation: Liver and Kidney are both responsible for filtering and purifying the blood. If the kidney has been transplanted because it had been harmed by toxins, then the same toxins could have harmed the liver as well. A transplanted kidney will require the use of immuno – suppressants to reduce the risk of immunorejection. This can put further pressure on the kidney and damage it.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Clinical Science.
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