This set of Clinical Science online test focuses on “Diathermy, Measurement of Radiation, Dose and its Calculations”.
1. For what all purposes is diathermy principal used?
a) Surgical and Therapeutic
b) Therapeutic and Diagnostic
c) Diagnostic and surgical
d) Diagnostic and rehabilitative
Explanation: Diathermy is a process by which the body is treated by the electromagnetic waves or waves of high frequency. These waves beyond certain frequencies have heating effects and can help in easing the pain in the body. This type of diathermy is used for therapeutic purposes. When the heat is increased and concentrated at a point, it can cause cutting action by boiling and burning the cells. This type of diathermy is used for surgical purposes.
2. What surgical functions are performed by the diathermy machine?
a) cutting, coagulation, fulguration
b) cutting, fulguration
c) cutting, coagulation
d) coagulation, fulguration
Explanation: Cutting happens when the heat is given is so high that the cell burns and is separated. This causes the incision to be formed, hence cutting. Coagulation happens when the cytoplasm is heated so much that it boils and joins together. Fulguration is a process in which the heat is applied and a spread out action takes place. It covers a larger area.
3. The types of therapeutic diathermy machines that exist are ___________
a) Short wave, micro wave and ultrasound
b) Short wave, ultrasound and cold compress
c) Cold compress, microwave and electrical impulse
d) Electrical impulse, microwave and ultrasound
Explanation: Shortwave diathermy uses the infrared heat waves to treat the patient while microwaves go inside the body and produce heat for treatment. Ultrasound also produces sound waves which travel in the body, produce heat and cause healing.
4. Which of the diathermy machine is good for deep tissue healing?
a) short wave
c) cold compress
d) electrical impulse
Explanation: The short wave diathermy produces heat by sending in infrared waves. These waves are produced by the plates or coils that are placed around the area to be treated. These heat waves can travel deeper into the body than the waves produced by microwave diathermy or ultrasound diathermy.
5. What is the frequency range of the sound used for ultrasound diathermy?
a) 0.1 – 0.7 MHz
b) 0.7 – 3.3 MHz
c) 3.3 – 5 MHz
d) 5 – 15 MHz
Explanation: The ultrasound treatment can penetrate up to 2 – 5 cm deep within the skin to relieve pain. The frequency of 0.7 – 3.3 MHz is used. If the frequency is increased, it can cause excess heat causing heat burns in the body and doing damage rather than therapy.
6. What precaution is used in diathermy?
a) the patient is made to lie on a soft pillow
b) pads are used for grounding and completing the circuit
c) the patient is made to drink a large number of fluids
d) wooden blocks are used for grounding
Explanation: Diathermy machines produce electromagnetic waves and the current used to produce these waves is huge. In case of any accidents, the person on whom diathermy is being performed and the one who is performing it, both can get severely injured. Thus, electrode gel and pads are both used for diathermy, surgical and therapeutic.
7. In heat wave diathermy, the maximum power given out is 500 W and the maximum voltage possible is 4000V. Thus, what is the highest resistance that heat wave diathermy machine can deal with?
a) 3.2 K ohm
b) 32 K ohm
c) 320 K ohm
d) 3200 K ohm
Explanation: The simple formula for power, voltage and resistance is used. P = V2/R
R = V2/P
R = 40002/500
R = 32 K ohm.
8. Which of the following is used to measure the biological damage caused by radiation?
Explanation: Rem is also a forming unit of radiation. It is used to measure the amount of exposure to radiation the person has had and determine if it is within safe limits or beyond it. If the safety limits have been crossed, the person must stay away from the radiology area for a specific period of time of quit working there altogether.
9. Beyond what dose is the cerebral system shows signs of failure?
a) 25 – 200 rad
b) 200 – 600 rad
c) 600 – 1000 rad
d) > 1000 rad
Explanation: Various studies show that more mature a cell, higher is its resistance to radiations. Nerve cells and muscle cells show high resistance to radioactivity. Nerve cells once generated, they stay for a long period of time. Thus, they are highly mature cells and so provide high resistance to the radioactivity.
10. What is the relation between 1 Rad, 1 Rem and 1 R?
a) 1 Rad ≈ 1.5 Rem ≈ 1000 R
b) 1 Rad ≈ 10 Rem ≈ 1.8 R
c) 1 Rad ≈ 1 Rem ≈ 1 R
d) 1 Rad ≈ 10 Rem ≈ 100 R
Explanation: All three units have almost the same values and they all are units and doses of radiations. Rad stands for radiation absorbed dose and it measures the radiation absorbed by the tissues of the body. Rem is radiation equivalent and it measures the biological damage caused by different types of radiation.R is for Roentgens and is used as a unit for X – Rays.
11. The two known units of radioactivity and the relation between the two are _______
a) Curie and Becquerel 1 Ci = 3.7 x 1010 Bq
b) Curie and Becquerel 1 Bq = 3.7 x 1010 Ci
c) Curie and Roentgens 1 Ci = 1000 R
d) Roentgen and Becquerel 1 R = 1000 Bq
Explanation: Curie and Becquerel signify the amount of disintegration of the radioactive substance in a unit time. Curie was an older unit and had a very high value which was not feasible for elements with lower activity. Thus, Becquerel unit was created which is one disintegration per second.
12. In a hypothetical radioactive material, the total number of active photons are 20000 and the decay constant is found out to be 4.916 X 10-17 per second. How much of the material will be left in a 100 years? (1 year = 365 days. Leap year is not assumed in the calculations)
Explanation: N = N0 e -λt where N = particles left after decay, N0 is the original number of particles, t is the time duration and λ is the decay constant. Thus, putting the values in the formula, we get :
N = 20000 * e(- (4.916* 10-17) * 365*100*24*60*60)= 19999.99999.
13. If the half life is found to be 100 msec, what is the decay constant?
a) 693 per second
b) 24948 per hour
c) 0.1155 per minute
d) 59875.2 per day
Explanation: Half life is and decay constant are related by t 1/2 = ln2/λ
t 1/2 = 0.693/λ
Since the half life is given in seconds, appropriate conversions are used for hours, minutes and day. By this, we get:
λ = 0.693*3600/t1/2 = 249480 per hour.
14. With what energy must the radiation be given to image a bone of thickness 5 cm which has covering of skin of thickness of 2 cm on the both sides and the emerging intensity of the X – Ray is 200MeV. (impedance for bone = b for skin = s )
b) 200e(4s + 5b)
Explanation: The formula goes like : I = I0e(-μt) where I is the final radiation, I0 is the initial radiation, μ is the impedance and t is the thickness. Since we know the emerging radiation, by using back processing formula, we get 200e(4s+5b).
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