This set of Clinical Science Questions and Answers for Campus interviews focuses on “Pre and Post Operative Care”.
1. Immediately after the surgery, the patient is usually shifted to _____________
d) Recovery room
Explanation: After the surgery, a patient is shifted to PACU (Post Anesthesia Care Unit). After a surgical procedure, anesthesia reversal is done and if needed, it is followed by extubation. The patient is monitored here for a duration which depends upon factors like the surgery performed, length of the surgery, type of anesthesia administered and the level of consciousness of the patient.
2. In the usual preparation for general surgery, the client may be __________
a) Given specifically ordered oral medications with small amounts of water
b) Given ice chips
c) NPO for 12 to 14 hours before
d) Allowed regular diet
Explanation: General Anesthesia is the process in which the whole body becomes numb and the mind is unconscious. In such cases, the mind has no control over the bladder or the sphincter muscles. The GI track is usually kept empty before the procedure to avoid any urinary or faecal discharges. It is also best kept empty to avoid any discharges of the GI track from leaking in the abdominal, which may end up causing infections after the surgery.
3. If a nurse finds that a patient’s abdominal wound has eviscerated, she should ________
a) Administer antibiotics
b) Position the patient sideways and call for help
c) Attempt to drain the site
d) Cover the site with saline-soaked sterile gauze
Explanation: When an abdominal wound eviscerates, the organs actually have shifted and come out. In such cases, emergency medicine must be applied first. Using a saline soaked sterile gauze will control any infection and keep the wound as clean and harmless as possible. Keeping the bandage well soaked will ensure that the bandage does not stick to the wound and is easily removable otherwise pulling the bandage off can cause other complications. The further procedures are taken care of by the doctors.
4. After surgery, an incentive spirometer is used to prevent _________
a) Lung collapse
b) Gastric and intestinal problems
c) Elevated blood pressure
d) Blood Clotting
Explanation: A spirometer is used to help the lungs regain their strength. After a surgery, due to the use of the ventilator, the lungs may feel a little abnormal and may have a weakness. This is also possible due to age. The person is made to breathe into the spirometer to exercise their lungs and regain normal lung function. Normally, 10 to 15 breaths with the spirometer every 1 to 2 hours is prescribed, or as often as instructed by your nurse or doctor.
5. What is the ideal time interval for patient monitoring in the Postanesthesia care unit?
a) Every hour
b) Every 15 mins
c) Every 30 mins
d) Every 10 mins
Explanation: Usually the patient remains in PACU for 60-90 minutes after surgery depending upon patient response. Vitals like heart rate, body temperature, oxygen levels, ensuring airways need to be constantly monitored in the immediate post-op period.
6. Spinal Anaesthesia used on a patient needs monitoring for ________
a) Oxygen levels
b) Hyper tension
c) Renal Function
d) Brain activity
Explanation: All the toxins and the administered medicines are removed by the kidney. Thus, when anesthesia is given in the spine, it is usually a local anesthesia and numbs the lower part of the body. Since the lower part of the body had been anesthetized, kidney which is also supplied to by these nerves may also be affected thus monitoring renal function becomes important.
7. To be approved for discharge from PACU, the patient should exhibit:
a) Normal breathing
b) No bleeding and swelling
c) Oxygen saturation of min 90
d)Temperature greater than 96.8
Explanation: Patients recovering from surgery and anesthesia have lost physiologic homeostasis. They’re at risk for respiratory and circulatory deficits, reduced physical activity and alterations in core body temperature and level of consciousness. It is an essential condition for discharge to possess a core body temperature of not less than 36° C (96.8° F).
8. A preoperative assessment should include all of the following except:
a) Current medication and drugs
b) Psychological aspects
c) Patient knowledge of rehabilitation
d) Age, Weight, Height
Explanation: The main goal of preoperative care is to reduce the patients surgical and anaesthetic perioperative morbidity or mortality and to allow the patient to get back to their original state as soon as possible. Thus, it is important to know the medical history of the patient. This also helps to guide the patient better for post operation rehabilitation.
9. A patient with a history of heart disease can be put on a prophylactic antibiotic.
Explanation: During surgery, high levels of sterility is maintained, be it the instruments used, the operation theatre or even the operation table. However, the risk of infections always exists. Thus, people with a history of a heart disease may have a weaker heart and so they are put on a prophylactic antibiotic to prevent bacterial endocarditis.
10. Paralytic ileus is a possible postoperative complication. To check for it, which of the following should be done?
a) Monitor renal function
b) Auscultate for bowel sounds every 4 hours
c) Administer antibiotics
d) Observe and monitor patient heart rate
Explanation: Paralytic ileus is an obstruction of the intestine due to paralysis of the intestinal muscles. The paralysis does not need to be complete to cause ileus, but the intestinal muscles must be so inactive that it prevents the passage of food and leads to a functional blockage of the intestine. It inhibits propulsive bowel movement and hence frequently needs to be assessed.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Clinical Science.
To practice all areas of Clinical Science for Campus Interviews, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.