This set of Clinical Science Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Blood Groups”.
1. On what basis is the blood type classified?
c) Rhesus Factor
d) Oxygen Content
Explanation: Rhesus factor, also known as antigen D is used to classify blood into positive and negative. If the RH factor is present, it is called as +ve blood type. If the RH factor is absent, it is called as -ve blood type.
2. On what basis is the blood group classified?
a) Antigen and antibody
b) Haemoglobin content
c) Rhesus Factor
d) Oxygen Content
Explanation: The blood groups have antigens which produce antibodies for the opposite blood group. Thus, blood group A has antigen A and it produces antibody B against the blood group B which contains antigen B. When a blood test is done, the blood of group A will clump up when antigen B is added to the taken blood. In the same way, the blood of group B will clump when antigen A is added. For blood group AB, no clumping happens and for group O, clumping happens for both Antigen A and B.
3. How many blood types exist including the positive and negative factors?
Explanation: Blood is classified into two factors, antigen-antibody and rhesus factor. There are two types of antigens A and B. The cells having antigen A have antibody B while those having antigen B have antibody A. This makes the blood group A and B. AB blood group have both antigens A and B and no antibodies. Blood group has no antigens but antibodies for both. This makes four blood groups A, B, AB, O. The presence and absence of Rh factor make these four blood groups into 8. A+, A-, B+, B-, AB+, AB-, O+ and O-.
4. If the blood of two different groups is mixed together, what problem is observed?
c) Thrombus formation
Explanation: The blood group is determined by the presence of antigen on the surface of the blood cells. When this antigen exists for one group, an antibody for the other group will exist as well. Thus, when the blood of the opposing group enters the body, the antibody attacks the antigen and they form a clump. This is called as agglutination.
5. Other than transfusion, when is it necessary to take the Rh factor into consideration?
b) Spleen Rupture
d) Blood Donation
Explanation: Erythroblastosis foetalis is a condition that may happen to a woman when she is pregnant. When a woman with RH- blood type conceives a baby with RH+ blood type, the body perceives it as a threat and starts producing antibodies. This can cause the baby to die in the womb and so RH factor must be monitored especially if the woman is RH-. Certain medications and treatments can help reverse this condition.
6. Which blood type is universal donor?
a) O –
b) O +
c) AB –
d) AB +
Explanation: In O- the antigens for A and B are both absent and so is the antigen D (more commonly known as the Rhesus factor). Thus, O- can donate blood to all types of blood groups quite safely.
7. If a person has AB- blood, who all can donate blood to him?
a) A+ , B-, O -, AB+
b) A- , B -, O+, AB+
c) A+, B+, O+, AB-
d) A-, B-, O-, AB-
Explanation: A person with AB- blood has antigens for A and B and the antibodies for them are absent. Since the blood group is negative, it means that antigen D or the Rhesus factor is also absent in the blood. Thus, all blood groups with negative rhesus factors can donate blood.
8. Extraction of a small section of diseased tissue to study and diagnose is called as ______
Explanation: A cell is the smallest individually functioning unit of a body. Thus, when a body is diseased, all the cells of the diseases tissues shows a similar kind of response and reactions. Thus, a small part of the diseased tissue is extracted which is used to study and analyze the problem. This is called a biopsy.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Clinical Science.
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