This set of Basic Clinical Science Questions and Answers focuses on “General Pathology”.
1. A Histopathology lab will deal with _________
d) Organ System
Explanation: Histology stands for the study of tissues while pathology stands for the study of diseases or abnormal conditions. Thus, the histopathology lab will deal with diseased or abnormal tissues.
2. What is the temperature which is maintained by the Freezers in the pathology labs?
a) 10℃ – 15℃
b) 0℃ – 10℃
c) -10℃ – -60℃
Explanation: When pathological samples are collected, they may have to be stored for further study or for future use. They are stored at a temperature of -10℃ – -60℃. At this temperature, the solution used for preserving freezes without causing damage to the samples.
3. What solution is used to maintain sterility in labs?
a) Sodium Chloride
b) Sodium Hypochlorite
c) Sodium Cyanide
d) Sodium Sulphate
Explanation: Sodium Hypochlorite acts like a bleaching agent. When it is dissolved in water and used to clean the labs, it gives off nascent oxygen. This oxygen is highly reactive and dangerous to microbes. It destroys the microbes that may have grown in the lab. It also helps remove stains due to its reactive nature and thus reduces/destroys the environment for microbes to breed.
4. An electrophorasis machine is used to __________
a) separate DNA
b) separate blood components
c) separate the bone components
d) separate the muscle fibers
Explanation: An electrophorasis machine uses the charge present on the substance and the weight of the substance to separate the various components of the substance. The DNA strand is taken and broken at various places which is detected by markers. These strands all possess individual charges and weights. When a potential difference is developed across the two ends, the strands start moving according to their weight and charges. Thus, the strands of the DNA get separated.
5. Which of the following devices are used to maintain a sterile environment while working with microorganisms?
a) Laminar Airflow
b) Microwave oven
c) Water Bath
Explanation: A laminar air flow is like a sterile work station. It has UV lamp and the whole chamber is aerated with sterile air to destroy any unwanted microorganisms. When any work is being done with microorganisms, they are placed in a petridish and placed in the laminar air flow. This allows sufficient aeration to the organisms without posing danger to the scientists. The scientists can work on the organisms by using gloves and accessing the chamber via special small holes which are wide enough for only the arms to pass through. Thus, the body stays out while the work in being done. This allows for isolation and maintains sterility.
6. Which device is used to separate the components of blood?
a) auto analyzer
d) magnetic stirrer
Explanation: The various components of blood precipitate at various speeds. The centrifuge rotates at high speed and the components depending upon their density separate out. The high speed causes them to clump together and then they either float up or sink down.
7. How are the blood cells and plasma separated?
b) hot plate
d) water bath
Explanation: The blood is collected, heparin is added to it and then the blood is centrifugated at 10,000 RPM. Then the blood is left to settle down. The cells due to higher weight settle down and the plasma floats up. The RBCs have the highest density so they settle down at the bottom. Then comes a layer of WBCs and then platelets. The plasma is collected above the platelets.
8. The cells related to blood are collectively called as
a) oestoblast cells
b) concdrocyte cells
c) hematopoietic cells
Explanation: Hemato is a term that related to blood. All the cellular components of the blood originate from the hematopoietic cells. They are found in the bone marrow of the long bones and are self renewing in nature. These are also considered as stem cells as they can give rise to different types of cells.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Clinical Science.
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