This set of Clinical Science online quiz focuses on “Artificial Organs – 2”.
1. It is difficult to make an artificial liver so a substitutive technology, like the dialysis machine, is being made. Which of the options is mostly considered in making such machines?
a) Using hepatocytes to filter blood
b) Using semi permeable membrane to filter plasma
c) Using solutions of different organic and inorganic composition, just like dialysate, to filter blood
d) Filtering the organic and inorganic components of the blood separately
Explanation: The liver performs multiple functions, all of which cannot be recreated externally. However, the function where the liver breaks the harmful substance into filterable substances that can be removed by the kidney. In order to achieve this, the best possible solution to use the hepatocytes, extracted from a liver and cultivated outside, to help in purification.
2. An artificial skin is needed the most in the cases of __________
d) Skin Cancer
Explanation: Burns are among the most dangerous and painful injury. Skin is the first line of defence of the body and performs many other functions. Thus, if the burns are severe or if a large part of the skin has been burned off, it is often fatal for the person. If the burnt skin is removed from the body within a given time, it may cause infections but once the skin has been removed, regrowing it is a long and painful process. Thus, an artificial skin is a quick and a fast way. It can cover the injured area and may slowly get degraded or peeled off as the new skin grows over it.
3. Which of the following are used as blood substitutes?
a) Hemoglobin based oxygen carriers, Perfluorocarbon emulsions
b) Plasma, hemoglobin based oxygen carriers
c) Plasma, hematopoetic cells
d) Hematopoetic cells encapsulating hemoglobin, perfluorocarbon emulsions
Explanation: Perfluorocarbons are kind of hydrocarbons in which the hydrogen has been replaced by fluorine which makes them chemically inert. Then various substances like water, salts and phospholipid surfactants are added and emulsified. These emulsions carry oxygen by trapping oxygen in their pores. Heamoglobin based oxygen carriers are vesicle like substances which can mimic the oxygen carrying properties of the haemoglobin so that the need for human haemoglobin can go down.
4. Which of the following is not a reason for blindness?
a) Damage to the retina
b) Low blood supply to the cornea
c) Damage to the optic nerve
d) Injury in the occipital lobe of the brain
Explanation: Cornea does not receive blood supply at all thus it cannot be a reason for blindness. The cornea simply a covering of the lens and protects it. The focal length of the lens is changed by the ciliary muscles and these muscles receive blood supply. Even if the ciliary muscles stop receiving blood, it will result in conditions like myopia, hpyermetropia etc.
5. If the occipital lobe has been injured or damaged, a substitute for an eye is the better option than any form of artificial eye or eye transplant.
Explanation: The occipital lobe is the region where the impulses from the eye are processed by the brain. This area can draw meaningful conclusions from the visual impulses. However, if the area is damaged, then it cannot process the impulses. In such cases, there substitute devices used, i.e. receptors are placed on other parts like the tongue or the skin. The signals are processed in such a way that the body reacts in the same way it would have the eye been functional.
6. The region of implants for various parts of an artificial eye can be _________
iv. Optic Nerve
vi. Lateral geniculate body
vii. Visual Cortex
a) iii, iv, vi, vii
b) i, iii, v, vi
c) ii, iv, v, vii
d) i, ii
Explanation: The basic necessity of an eye implant is that of a light sensor and a light transducer. These eye implants are usually functional provided the occipital lobe is functioning well. In case the optic nerve is damaged, the implant will directly send signals to the brain. Thus, retina which has rods and cones, optic nerve which brings the signal to the brain, lateral geniculate body where the brain receives the signal from the body and the visual cortex which finally processes the signal are the regions of implantation.
7. What is the difference between blindness and cataract?
a) Cataract happens in the retina and blindness happens to cornea
b) Cataract is clouding up of the cornea while blindness happens if either retina, optic nerve or the occipital lobe is injured or damages
c) Cataract can be corrected with surgery while blindness can be cured by increasing the intake of vitamin A
d) Blindness is when cilliary muscles do not contract properly while cataract is when the eyeball has gotten deformed
Explanation: Cataract is a physiological problem that occurs due to old age while blindness is mostly a neural problem. A person who is blind, either their light receptors, i.e. rods and cones are not functioning or the nerve that will carry the impulses to the brain, i.e. the optic nerve is not functioning or the occipital lobe which is the receptor lobe for eye impulses has been damaged.
8. When is a cochlear implant used?
a) When the sensory hair in the auditory canal have been damaged
b) When the tympanic membrane has been damaged
c) When the ossicular chain has been damaged
d) When the fluid in the eustancian tube has been dis-balanced
Explanation: The sound finally reaches the cochlea of the ear which has fine cochlear hair. These are receptors of sound and they convert the sound impulses into electrical impulses which are received by the auditory nerve and then taken back to the temporal lobe to the brain. When these cochlear hair gets damaged, a cochlear implant is used.
9. Which of the following person is famous as ‘Blade Runner’?
a) Usain Bolt
b) Milkha Singh
c) Oscar Pistorius
d) Meb Keflezighi
Explanation: Oscar Pistorius is famous as the blade runner because he uses the C – Shaped artificial limb to move. It is a prosthetic leg that has been attached knee down. With the C – Shaped prosthetic legs, people are able to walk, run, cycle etc and live a normal life.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Clinical Science.
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