This set of Tough Strength of Materials Questions and Answers focuses on “Bending Stress due to Eccentric Loading”.

1. Eccentrically loaded structures have to be designed for _______
a) Uniaxial force
b) Biaxial force
c) Combined axial force
d) Combined biaxial force

Explanation: When the line of action of the resultant compressive force doesn’t coincide with the centre of gravity of the cross section of the structure, it is called eccentrically loaded structure. They have to be designed for combined axial force.

2. ______ transfer the loads from beams or slabs to footings or foundations.
a) Pedestal
b) Post
c) Rib
d) Column

Explanation: A vertical member whose effective length is greater than 3 times its least lateral dimension carrying compressive loads is called a column. The main function of column is to transfer the loads from the beams or slabs to the footings or foundation.

3. In long columns, the lateral deflection causes at the ______
a) Supports
b) Throughout
c) Midspan
d) Along outer periphery

Explanation: A long column under the action of axial loads deflects laterally causing maximum deflection at the centre. A long column fails due to buckling.

4. Short columns causes deflection in the structure.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: If the ratio of the effective length of the column to the least lateral dimension is less than 12. The column is called a short column. It fails by crushing (pure compression failure) and there is no chance of causing deflections.

5. The approximate percentage of reinforcement provided in a beam varies from _______
a) 1-2%
b) 1-4%
c) 2-3%
d) 3-4%

Explanation: The approximate percentage of reinforcement provided in a beam varies from 1-2%.

Type of Structure Approx. % of Steel
Beam 1-2%
Slabs 0.7-1%
Columns 1-4%

6. To avoid the failure of a column by buckling ___________ limits are to be recommended.
a) Slenderness
b) Effective length
c) Kernel

Explanation: The column dimensions shall be such that it fails by material failure only (crushing due to compression) and not by buckling. To avoid the failure of column buckling clause 25.3 of IS 456 recommends the slenderness limits for the column.

7. According to IS 456- 2000, the minimum eccentricity subjected to a column is __________
a) 30mm
b) 20mm
c) 45mm
d) 50mm

Explanation: No column can have a perfectly axial load. There may be some moments acting due to the imperfection of construction or due to actual conditions of loading when IS 456-2000, recommends that all columns Shall be designed for minimum eccentricity of 20 mm.

8. Radius of gyration is denoted by _________
a) k
b) n
c) e
d) y

Explanation: The radius of gyration about a given axis is defined as the effective distance from the given axis at which the whole area may be considered or located. It is denoted by “k” or “r”. The units for the radius of gyration are mm.

9. Find the moment of inertia of a rectangular section of 40 mm width and 80 mm depth about the base.
a) 632×104mm4
b) 682×104mm4
c) 734×104mm4
d) 568×104mm4

Explanation:

Moment of inertia of the rectangular section passing through the base is bd3/ 3.
I = bd/3
= 40×(80)3/ 3
= 682.66×104mm4.

10. Mild steel is an example of ______________ mechanical property of the material.
a) Malleability
b) Creep
c) Ductility
d) Elasticity

Explanation: Ductility is the property of a material by which material can be drawn into thin wires after undergoing a considerable deformation without rupture. The mild steel, silver, tor steel, aluminium etc. are considered as examples for ductility.

11. Which of the following are the relative properties of the material?
a) Creep
b) Fatigue
c) Hardness
d) Stiffness

Explanation: The hardness is the ability of a material to resist indentation (impression), scratching or surface abrasion. It is the relative property of the material. Every material has its own hardness number.

12. Rotating key of a lock is an example of ____________
a) Varignon’s Theory
b) Walton’s Theory
c) Formation of couple
d) Parallel axis theorem

Explanation: A set of two equal and opposite forces whose line of action is different form a couple. The effect of couple is always to produce moment on which it acts either in clockwise or anticlockwise directions. The example is rotating key of a lock.

13. The relative change in position is called ______________
a) Matter
b) Body
c) Inertia
d) Motion

Explanation: A body said to be in motion when it changes its position with respect to other bodies. The relative change in position is called motion. The motion involves both space and time.

14. Which of the following is not base unit?
a) Area
b) Length
c) Time
d) Temperature

Explanation: If the units are expressed in other units which are derived from fundamental units, such units are known as derived units. The examples are area, velocity, acceleration & pressure etc.

15. According to IS 456-2000, the minimum number of longitudinal bars to be provided in rectangular columns is ________
a) 5
b) 4
c) 6
d) 8

Explanation: According to IS 456-2000, the cross sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and not more than 6% of gross cross-sectional area. The minimum diameter of longitudinal bars is 12 mm and minimum number of longitudinal bars to be provided is 4 for a rectangular column.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Strength of Materials.

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