This set of Virology Questions and Answers for Freshers focuses on “Methods for Studying Animal Viruses”.
1. Which of the following is not a category of the method of virus detection?
d) Nucleic acid detection
Explanation: Viruses are smaller microorganisms that require electron microscopy to be detection and this requires the concentration in excess. Thus, viruses are usually detected by indirect methods which fall into three categories: multiplication, serology and the detection of viral nucleic acid.
2. Which of the following is the first cell line derived from a human?
a) HEK 293
d) Chinese hamster ovary cells
Explanation: HeLa is the first cell line derived from the patient cells who died due to cervical cancer. The name of the cell line was given after the patient name, Henrietta Lacks. HeLa is one of the oldest and most commonly used cell lines and is an immortal cell line used in scientific research.
3. Which of the following effect causes changes in the host organism?
a) Cytopathic effect
b) Kappa effect
c) Peltzman effect
d) Hypersonic effect
Explanation: The cytopathic effect is the effect that causes the changes in the host organism or infected cells due to the presence of the virus. It is the most usual way of detecting the presence of the virus in an infected cell by the pathology it causes. It is also known as CPE. CPE provides a quick and easy check on the progress of the viral infection.
4. Which of the following is important for mitosis to occur?
Explanation: Serum is an important substance without which mitosis does not occur. It is a complex mixture of proteins and other compounds. However, synthetic substitutes are available but are employed for special purposes only.
5. The hybridoma technology is used for the production of ___________
b) Growth medium
Explanation: The hybridoma technology is used for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) from hybridoma cells. They are called monoclonal as they are derived from a single cell line and are designed to bind to a particular antigen.
6. Which of the following is not the step of viral genome amplification?
Explanation: Expansion is not the step of amplification of the viral genome. The viral genome can be amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which has three steps: denaturation, annealing, and extension.
7. PCR was devised by ____________
a) Kary Mullis
b) Fredrick Sanger
c) Paul Berg
d) James Watson
Explanation: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was devised by Kary Mullis in the year 1985 to amplify the genome of various organisms. There are many types of PCR developed which can be used for conversion of DNA to RNA and vice versa.
8. Taq polymerase is isolated from ____________
a) Escherichia coli
b) Thermus aquaticus
c) Pyrococcus furiosus
d) Streptococcus pneumoniae
Explanation: Taq polymerase is isolated from the bacterium Thermus aquaticus. It is a bacterium which lives in the natural hot springs. Taq is inactivated at a higher temperature and can survive the denaturation temperature of 94°C.
9. ELISA is used for the detection of viral diseases.
Explanation: ELISA is an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay, which is used for the detection of several viral diseases such as HIV AIDS, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), etc.
10. Cell lines are the type of cell culture.
Explanation: There are usually three types of cell cultures: primary cells, cell lines and permanent cell lines. Primary cells are derived from organs and remain differentiated whereas cell lines are dedifferentiated and survive a larger number or maybe immortal.
11. Which of the following PCR is used for the conversion of RNA to DNA?
c) Nested PCR
d) Multiplex PCR
Explanation: RT-PCR or reverse transcriptase PCR is used for the conversion of RNA to cDNA using reverse transcriptase enzyme and then amplify the specific sequence or regions of DNA. It is also called as RT-qPCR.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Virology.
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