Protein Engineering Questions and Answers – Targets – Engineering Antibodies, Hormones and Receptors

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This set of Protein Engineering Question Paper focuses on “Targets – Engineering Antibodies, Hormones and Receptors”.

1. Which of the following is also called as immunoglobulin?
a) MHC molecules
b) Fat molecules
c) Antigen molecules
d) Antibody molecules
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The antibody molecules are also called as immunoglobulins. It is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the protease of a foreign substance, called as antigen. MHC molecules, fat molecules, and antigen molecules are not called as immunoglobulins.
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2. Which of the following cells secrete antibodies in the bloodstream?
a) Antigen-presenting cells
b) B cells
c) T cells
d) Plasma cells
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: When an antigen binds to the B cell surface, it stimulates the B cells to divide and mature into a group of identical cells called plasma cells. These plasma cells secrete millions of antibodies into the bloodstream and lymphatic system.

3. Which of the following is not the function of antibodies?
a) Immobilizing antigen
b) Neutralize antigens
c) Change the chemical composition of antigen
d) Destroy antigens
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Antibodies are immunoglobulins that are produced in response to an antigen that has entered the body. Antibodies are capable of immobilizing antigens, neutralizing antigens, and changing the chemical composition of antigens. But antibodies do not destroy the antigen.
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4. The antigen receptors present on the B cells recognize the entire antigen.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The above statement is false. The antigen receptors present on the B cells do not recognize the entire antigen; instead, it binds only a portion of the antigen’s surface, an area called the antigenic determinant or epitope.

5. An antibody molecule forms which of the following structure?
a) V-shaped
b) L shaped
c) O shaped
d) Y shaped
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: An antibody molecule forms a Y shaped structure. The stem of Y consists of one end of each of two identical heavy chains, while each arm is composed of the remaining portion of a heavy chain plus a smaller protein called light chain.
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6. Antibodies are grouped into how many classes?
a) Two
b) Four
c) Ten
d) Five
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Antibodies are grouped into five classes, according to their constant region. The five classes are IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE. These classes of antibodies differ not only in their constant region but also in their activity.

7. Which of the following class of antibody is found in the mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts?
a) IgM
b) IgE
c) IgD
d) IgA
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The IgA class of antibody is found in the mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgM, IgE, and IgD are not the class of antibodies that are found in the mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.
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8. Which of the following is obtained by fusing the sequences coding for the variable region of immunoglobulins to proteins of phage coat?
a) Antigen
b) Monoclonal antibody
c) Monoclonal phage
d) Antibody phage display
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Antibody phage display is obtained by fusing the sequences coding for the variable region of immunoglobulins to proteins of phage coat. Antigen, monoclonal antibody, or monoclonal phage are not obtained by fusing the sequences coding for the variable region of immunoglobulins to proteins of phage coat.

9. The basic structure of the antibody consists of how many pairs of polypeptide chains?
a) Four
b) Three
c) Five
d) Two
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The basic structure of the antibody consists of two pairs of polypeptide chains. It consists of two heavy chains and two light chains. Both types of chains contain constant region and a variable region, denoted by ‘C’ and ‘V’ respectively.
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10. Which of the following class of antibody is the most common antibody and is present mostly in the blood and tissue fluids?
a) IgA
b) IgM
c) IgE
d) IgG
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The IgG class of antibody is the most common antibody and is present mostly in the blood and tissue fluids. IgA, IgM, and IgE are not common antibodies and are not present mostly in the blood and tissue fluids.

11. In antibody engineering, its diversity is first randomly generated and specificity is obtained through the subsequent screening against even complex materials containing the antigen of interest.
a) False
b) True
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: The above statement is true. In antibody engineering, its diversity is first randomly generated, and then the specificity is obtained through the subsequent screening against even complex materials containing the antigen of interest.

12. Which of the following is not an application of engineered antibodies?
a) Immunotoxin antibodies
b) Immunoconjugate antibodies
c) In agriculture as a substitute of a plant hormone
d) In agriculture as a pesticide
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Engineered antibodies are not used in agriculture as pesticides. Hence, this is not an application of engineered antibodies. Immunotoxin antibodies, immunoconjugate antibodies, and in agriculture as a substitute for plant hormones are all applications of engineered antibodies.

13. Which of the following is also known as catalytic antibodies?
a) Immunozymes
b) Polyzymes
c) Ribozymes
d) Abzymes
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Abzymes are also known as catalytic antibodies. Immunozymes, Polyzymes, and Ribozymes are not catalytic antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies have been obtained, that can catalyze a wide range of reactions, eventually not performed by natural enzymes. Abzymes have been used to activate prodrugs.

14. Which of the following is not an important target of protein engineering?
a) Peptide hormones
b) Receptors
c) Components of the cell signaling machinery
d) Proteins like actin and myosin
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Proteins like actin and myosin are not important applications of protein engineering. These proteins are involved in muscle contraction and relaxation. Peptide hormones, receptors, and components of cell signaling machinery are important targets of protein engineering.

15. The hormone/receptor interactions are mostly dependent on which of the following structural elements?
a) Quaternary structural elements
b) Primary structural elements
c) Tertiary structural elements
d) Secondary structural elements
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The hormone/receptor interactions are mostly dependent on secondary structural elements. This observation led to the design of polypeptides with reduced size but enhanced biological activity, where secondary structure homology rather than sequence homology was maintained.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter