Nanotechnology Questions and Answers – Medical Application of Nanoparticles

This set of Nanotechnology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Medical Application of Nanoparticles”.

1. Why are carbon nanotubes used for orthopedic implants?
a) Trigger an immune response
b) Limits the effectiveness of implants
c) Increase the instability of implants
d) Improve the lifespan of the implants
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: The use of carbon nanotubes in orthopedic implants can increase their lifespan. These nanotubes resemble collagen fibres of bone tissues in properties and morphology. This helps better blood regeneration and adherence to the implant. This brings greater stability in the implant.

2. Why are nanoparticles used in MRI technology?
a) Detect metal implants in body
b) Increase the image quality
c) Decrease the acoustic reflectivity
d) Develop allergen to the contrasting agent
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Nanoparticles are used in MRI technology for increasing the image quality of the device. They can also improve the clarity of the image through the combination of the biocompatible shell and magnetic core. These inturn enhance image quality by increasing the half-life of the contrast agent.

3. Identify the correct statement related to pH-responsive nanoparticles.
a) Are not preferable to be used for treatment of cancer
b) Are used for the intra cellular delivery of certain drugs
c) Are not subjected to any conformal changes when exposed to various pHs inside the body
d) Are responsible for the decrease in osmotic pressure inside the endosomal compartment.
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: pH responsive nanoparticles are essentially used for intra-cellular drug delivery. The drug released at optimal pH might undergo conformational changes due to its exposure to different pHs throughout the body. These can be used for cancer treatment as they are capable of delivering the drug at specific locations. These nanoparticles absorb protons at endosomal pH. This leads to the increase in the osmotic pressure inside the endosomal compartment.

4. Which nanoparticles are used for the detection of proteins and their interactions?
a) Gold nanoparticles
b) Aluminium nanoparticles
c) Iron nanoparticles
d) Calcium nanoparticles
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Gold nanoparticles can be used in immunohistochemistry to identify protein-protein interactions. However, there are few limitations to this method. In order to overcome those, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is combined with immunohistochemistry to form a single nanoparticle probe that can be modified to contain antibodies on the surface to recognize proteins.

5. What is the major drawback of orthopedic implants made out of carbon nanotubes?
a) Bone regeneration
b) Increased lifespan
c) Triggered immune response
d) Bioreactive surface implants
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Carbon nanotubes have a high potential in being used as an orthopedic implant. However, there are certain challenges for their practical applicability. The coatings and composites may lead to the production of debris of nanotubes that might inturn trigger the immune response. This can result in a number of side effects that would reduce the implant efficiency. Generalized problems include lower production of CNTs, inability to control their length, diameter, chirality etc.

6. Nanoparticles cannot be used in the ultrasound technology.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Nanoparticles are applied to enhance the image contrast of ultrasound. They increase the acoustic reflectivity in ultrasound technology thereby forming brighter and clearer images.

7. Why are gold NPs used as radiosensitizer?
a) High mass energy absorption coefficient
b) Decreased dose deposition effectiveness
c) Baneful effects towards human tissues
d) Unselective to tumor cells
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Gold nanoparticles are of considerable interest for use as a radiosensitizer owing to their biocompatibility and ability to increase the dose deposited. This happens due to their high mass energy absorption coefficient. They can also absorb almost 10 to 150 times more energy per unit mass than soft tissues eventually damaging the tumor cells. The damage progresses by ionizing water molecules and creating free radicals near the DNA of tumor cells.

8. Which of the following is not a function of gold nanoparticles used for cancer treatment?
a) Select cancerous tissues
b) Act as effective radiosensitizer
c) Medically incompatible
d) Increase the dose deposit
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Gold nanoparticles play a great role in the medical field. They are able to select cancerous tissues, which can be damaged eventually using a laser. They are biocompatible. They also act as an effective radiosensitizer, enhance the functionality of radiation therapy and increase dose deposit.

9. How are silver nanoparticles effective against bacterial cells?
a) Promote electron transfer
b) Enhance their reproduction rate
c) Activate bacterial colonization on various surfaces
d) Inactivate proteins and block respiration
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Silver NPs are biocompatible and possess antimicrobial properties. They function by inactivating proteins, blocking respiration and electron transfer in bacteria. This inactivates bacteria causing a failure in their reproduction. Consequently, a bacteria free surface is obtained.

10. Choose the incorrect statement from the following.
a) Superparamagnetic nanoparticles treat cancer by cooling the cancerous tissues
b) Gold nanoparticles are used in the treatment of cancer
c) Nanoparticles increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy
d) Nanoparticles are biocompatible and increase dose deposit
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Nanoparticles have found extensive applications in the medical field. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles heat cancerous tissues that ultimately damage these cells and treat cancer. Gold nanoparticles are also effective in treating cancer. They are biocompatible, increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy and dose deposit.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Nanotechnology.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He lives in Bangalore, and focuses on development of Linux Kernel, SAN Technologies, Advanced C, Data Structures & Alogrithms. Stay connected with him at LinkedIn.

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