This set of Embedded Systems Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Formal Verification”.

1. What is meant by FOL?

a) free order logic

b) fast order logic

c) false order logic

d) first order logic

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Explanation: Many formal verification techniques are used and these are classified on the basis of the logics employed. The techniques are propositional logic, first order logic, and higher order logic. The FOL is the abbreviated form of the first order logic which includes the quantification.

2. What is HOL?

a) higher order logic

b) higher order last

c) highly organised logic

d) higher order less

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Explanation: The formal verification techniques are classified on the basis of the logics employed. The techniques are propositional logic, first order logic, and higher order logic. The HOL is the abbreviation of the higher order logic in which the proofs are automated and manually done with some proof support.

3. What is BDD?

a) boolean decision diagram

b) binary decision diagrams

c) binary decision device

d) binary device diagram

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Explanation: The binary decision diagram is a kind of data structure which is used to represent the Boolean function.

4. Which formal verification technique consists of Boolean formula?

a) HOL

b) FOL

c) Propositional logic

d) Both HOL and FOL

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Explanation: The propositional logic technique is having the boolean formulas and the boolean function. The tools used in propositional logic is the tautology checker or the equivalence checker which in turn uses the binary decision diagrams which is also known as BDD.

5. Which of the following is also known as equivalence checker?

a) BDD

b) FOL

c) Tautology checker

d) HOL

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Explanation: The propositional logic technique consists of the boolean formulas and the boolean function. The tools used in this type of logic is the tautology checker or the equivalence checker which in turn uses the BDD or the binary decision diagrams.

6. Which of the following is possible to locate errors in the specification of the future bus protocol?

a) EMC

b) HOL

c) BDD

d) FOL

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Explanation: The model checking was developed using the binary decision diagram and the BDD and it was possible to locate errors in the specification of the future bus protocol.

7. Which of the following is a popular system for model checking?

a) HOL

b) FOL

c) BDD

d) EMC

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Explanation: The EMC-system is developed by Clark and it describes the CTL formulas, which is the computational tree logics.

8. What is CTL?

a) computational tree logic

b) code tree logic

c) cpu tree logic

d) computer tree logic

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Explanation: The EMC-system is a popular system for model checking which is developed by Clark that describes the CTL formulas, which is also known as computational tree logics. The CTL consist of two parts, a path quantifier, and a state quantifier.

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