This set of Fermentation Technology Questions and Answers for Freshers focuses on “Improvement of Industrial Microorganisms”.
1. Which of the following procedure has a great application in strain improvement?
a) rDNA Technology
Explanation: The applications of rDNA Technology has resulted in improvement of strains and it has helped the organisms in producing products which they were not able to produce earlier.
2. The Induced mutations results in _________ formation.
a) A-A dimer
b) C-C dimer
c) T-T dimer
d) G-G dimer
Explanation: The mutations which are not spontaneous and are induced purposely on strain are called Induced mutations. It results in the formation of T-T dimers. T-T dimer results in the formation of hydrogen bonding between thymine bases.
3. Who isolated a biotin-requiring, Corynebacterium glutamicum?
Explanation: Kinoshita et al. isolated a biotin requiring, glutamate-producing, Corynebacterium glutamicum whose permeability was modified by the level of biotin.
4. When C. glutamicum was grown in a medium containing a high concentration of biotin, the amount of glutamate produced was ________
a) 10-40 µg/mg-1
b) 20-35 µg/mg-1
c) 25-36 µg/mg-1
d) 35-40 µg/mg-1
Explanation: When C. glutamicum was grown in a medium containing a high concentration of biotin, the amount of glutamate produced was 25-36 µg/mg-1 . When the proper amount of biotin is used, about 50 µg/mg-1 of glutamate is produced.
5. α – ketoglutarate dehydrogenase normally converts _______ into _______
a) α – ketoglutarate, succinate
b) α – ketoglutarate, malate
c) α – ketoglutarate, glutamate
d) α – ketoglutarate, oxaloacetate
Explanation: α – ketoglutarate dehydrogenase normally converts α – ketoglutarate into succinate in the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA) or citric acid cycle.
6. Who discovered the Gradient plate technique?
Explanation: Szybalski in 1952 discovered the Gradient Plate technique for exposing the survivors of mutation to a range of analogues. Gradient plate was useful in the isolation of drug and auxotrophic mutants.
7. The Replica plate technique was used for _________
a) Isolation of auxotrophs
b) Isolation of revertants
c) Isolation of analogue-resistant mutants
d) Isolation of prototrophs
Explanation: The Replica plate technique was used for the isolation of revertants. The isolation of auxotrophs and prototrophs proceeds with auxanographic technique and the isolation of analogue-resistant mutants is done by Gradient Plate technique.
8. Shiio and Sano (1969) investigated the use of prototrophic revertants of __________ for lysine production.
a) C. glutamicum
b) B. flavum
c) S. cerevisiae
d) S. typhi
Explanation: Shiio and Sano (1969) investigated the use of prototrophic revertants of Brevibacterium flavum for lysine production. Lysine is an amino acid useful in the prevention of cold sores.
9. Which of the following is the analogue of valine?
Explanation: The analogue of valine is trifluoroleucine. The mutants of Streptomyces lipmanni were resistant to trifluoroleucine. Here, Cephamycin is an antibiotic that mainly fights against gram-negative bacteria.
10. Which of the following secondary metabolites does not prevent the synthesis of its own?
Explanation: The secondary metabolites which prevent the synthesis of its own are chloramphenicol, aurodox, puromycin, penicillin, fungicidin, candihexin, etc.
11. Which of the following organism(s) strain can be improved by parasexual cycle?
a) A. niger
b) P. chrysogenum
c) A. nidulans
d) B. flavum
Explanation: The parasexual cycle is used to improve the strain of fungi like A. niger. It is not a useful method for improvement of bacterial strains. They are gram-positive bacterial organisms found in soil.
12. In which of the following technique the genome is transferred from one organism to another?
a) Protoplast fusion
b) rDNA technology
c) Induced mutations
Explanation: Protoplast fusion is a technique where the whole genome is transferred from one organism to another one. rDNA is the fusion of DNA using specific enzyme. Induced mutations are the changes in base pairs of DNA. Conjugation is the transfer of genetic material.
13. Which of the following cannot induce mutations?
b) Gamma rays
Explanation: The agents which cause mutation are called mutagens. Some of the mutagens are X-rays, Gamma rays, Bromine, UV radiation, etc. Chlorine is not a mutagen.
14. Which of the following is a type of mutation?
a) Point mutations
b) Frameshift mutations
c) Sense mutation
d) Missense mutations
Explanation: The mutations are the change in base pair of a DNA sequence. Point mutations, Frameshift mutations, Missense mutations, Insertion, Deletion, etc.
15. Which of the following strain is useful for diabetes treatment?
Explanation: Diabetes is a condition where the glucose level in our blood increases. To treat this, Insulin protein is used. Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Fermentation Technology.
To practice all areas of Fermentation Technology for Freshers, here is complete set of 1000+ Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.