This set of Tough Fermentation Technology Questions and Answers focuses on “Differentiation (Traditional Methods)”.
1. Which of the following is not a traditional method of differentiation?
a) Plate test
b) Genetic fingerprinting
c) Flocculation test
Explanation: Genetic fingerprinting is not a traditional method of differentiation. It is a modern method. Plate tests, flocculation tests, assimilation, etc are traditional methods which are based on conventional brewing microbiology.
2. Which of the following is not a reason why modern methods cannot replace traditional methods?
a) High capital costs
b) High skill sets are required
c) Benefit is high
d) High revenue costs
Explanation: Modern methods cannot replace traditional methods mainly due to three reasons: The revenue and capital costs of modern methods are higher, the required skill sets are not found in brewery QA laboratories, and the overall cost benefit is not attractive.
3. IRR1 gene is responsible for _____________
a) Growth on solid media
b) Growth on liquid media
c) Release of enzymes
d) Protein synthesis
Explanation: IRR1 gene is responsible for the growth or formation of colonies on the solid media but it has no role to play on growth in liquid culture. It is neither responsible for the release of the enzyme nor the synthesis of proteins.
4. Which of the following is the most traditional of the ‘traditional methods’ of strain characterization?
a) Genetic fingerprinting
c) Flocculation test
d) Giant colony method
Explanation: Giant colony method is the most traditional method of the traditional methods of strain characterization. Lindner reported that up to ten single colonies on thick wort-gelatin plates give rise to ‘giant colonies’ when incubated for three weeks at 18°C.
5. Which of the following is not correct for WLN agar?
a) It is used in the detection of yeasts
b) It is used in the detection of viruses
c) It is a chromogenic media
d) It is used in the detection of bacteria
Explanation: WLN agar is a chromogenic agar which is used in the detection of yeasts and bacteria. The colour of colonies grown on WLN media ranges from light lime green to dark green. The colony colour is used in the differentiation of yeasts.
6. The antibiotic cycloheximide inhibits ____________
a) RNA synthesis
b) DNA synthesis
c) Protein synthesis
d) DNA replication
Explanation: The antibiotic cycloheximide inhibits cytoplasmic protein synthesis in yeasts and other eukaryotes. The resistance to cycloheximide is used in the differentiation of the brewing strains of yeasts.
7. Which of the following does not generate an immune response?
Explanation: Haptens are the substances which are immunogens but do not generate an immune response and are not immunogenic. If haptens are bound to any larger molecule like Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), it will lead to the formation of protein-carrier complex. This complex is immunogenic in nature and thus generates an immune response.
8. T cells mature in __________
a) Bone marrow
c) Lymph nodes
Explanation: T cells are T-lymphocytes which are formed inside the bone marrow and for maturation they travel to the thymus. They become single positive after maturation and then the selection of T-cells is initiated.
9. Which of the following is not correct for antigen?
a) It is a foreign molecule
b) It is an immunogen
c) It is always immunogenic
d) It possesses epitopes
Explanation: An antigen is any foreign molecule which generates a specific immune response. It is not always immunogenic (e.g. haptens). They are also called as immunogens and they possess epitopes on which a specific antibody molecule attaches itself.
10. B cells are formed in ____________
a) Bone marrow
d) Lymph nodes
Explanation: B-cells are formed in the bone marrow and even mature inside the bone marrow. They are also known as B-lymphocytes and are Antigen Presenting Cell (APC). They secrete antibodies in response to antigens.
11. The mutants can be easily searched by using _____________
a) Pour plate technique
b) Spread plate technique
c) Replica plate technique
d) Streak plate technique
Explanation: The mutants can be easily searched by using a replica plate technique. It involves the transfer of colonies from the master plate to a variety of agar plates such as an antibiotic-resistant plate. The colonies which grow on both the master plate and the replica plate are antibiotic-resistant mutants.
12. ELISA cannot be used in _________
a) Determining the concentration of antigen
b) Determining the concentration of antibody
c) Detection of cancer
d) Viewing of DNA
Explanation: ELISA is an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. It is useful in determining the concentration of antigen and antibody. It also has an application in the detection of cancer. However, it is not useful in the viewing of DNA. UV transilluminator is used for DNA viewing.
13. Ale strains have higher maximum growth temperature than lager strains.
Explanation: Ale strains and lager strains can be easily differentiated by incubating at the temperature 37-38°C. Ale strains have a maximum growth temperature of 37.5 to 39.8°C. whereas lager strains grow at 31.6 to 34.0°C. Thus, it is an easy method for differentiation of strains.
14. Organic acids can be used in the differentiation of strains.
Explanation: Organic acids can be used in the differentiation of brewing strains. The organic acid profile can be used to discriminate after growth on the assimilatory carbon sources but not after growth on glucose.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Fermentation Technology.
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