This set of Fermentation Technology Quiz focuses on “Differentiation (Modern Methods)”.
1. Which of the following is not a modern method of differentiation?
b) Plate tests
Explanation: Plate test is not a modern method of differentiation. It is a traditional method. Karyotyping, PCR, RFLP, AFLP are the modern methods for identification and differentiation of individual brewing yeasts.
2. What is the full form of RFLP?
a) Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
b) Recognition Fragment Length Polymorphism
c) Random Fragment Linear Polymorphism
d) Random Fragment Linear Polymorphism
Explanation: The full form of RFLP is Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. The brewing strains of yeast can be differentiated based on length. It is neither simple nor a quick method.
3. RFLP is a ____________
a) Molecular scissor
b) PCR technique
c) Method of producing GMOs
d) Molecular marker
Explanation: RFLP is a molecular marker which is used to differentiate the strains of yeasts. The DNA is digested by restriction enzymes and the gel electrophoresis is performed to differentiate the length of the fragment. RAPD, AFLP, etc are other molecular markers.
4. Which of the following is not a restriction enzyme?
a) Hind III
b) Eco RI
c) Bam HI
Explanation: The restriction enzymes are enzymes which cut the DNA into fragments. Examples are Hind III, Eco RI, Bam HI, Sal I, etc. They are also called as molecular scissors. They may be restriction endonuclease or restriction exonuclease. They recognize the recognition site where they cut DNA into fragments.
5. PCR is a _______________
a) Power Chain Reaction
b) Power Control Reaction
c) Polymerase Chain Reaction
d) Polymerase Control Reaction
Explanation: PCR is a Polymerase Chain Reaction which is used for the amplification of DNA. It is a widely used tool in food microbiology. It proceeds with three steps: Denaturation, Annealing, Extension.
6. The denaturation temperature is _________
Explanation: The denaturation temperature is 94°C. It is the temperature at which the double-stranded DNA is broken down into single-stranded DNA. It is followed by the addition of primers. Two sets of primers are added: Forward primer and Reverse primer. The extension is done by Taq Polymerase at 72°C.
7. Which of the following is false for karyotyping?
a) It is used to determine the chromosomal number
b) It is used to determine the chromosomal size
c) It is used in the detection of disease
d) It is used in DNA amplification
Explanation: Karyotyping is not used in the amplification of DNA. Instead, PCR is used for DNA amplification. Karyotyping is used to determine chromosomal size and number and is also used in the detection of genetic disorders.
8. The length of primers in RAPD is _______
a) 8 – 15 nts
b) 15 – 20 nts
c) 5 – 10 nts
d) 2 – 5 nts
Explanation: The length of primers in RAPD is 8 – 15 nucleotides. RAPD is Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA which amplifies the DNA sequence using the random primers. It is an easy and quick method.
9. Who first described the use of RFLP in brewing strain differentiation?
Explanation: Schofield et al. in 1995 described the use of RFLP DNA fingerprinting in the differentiation of the brewing strains of yeast. Likewise, many DNA fingerprinting applications were identified in the brewing yeast differentiation.
10. Pyrolysis mass spectroscopy differentiated organisms to _____________ level.
c) Genus and Species
Explanation: Pyrolysis mass spectroscopy (PyMS) is used in the differentiation of microorganisms to the level of genus, species, and subspecies. It is a simple, quick and easy to perform. Before pyrolysis mass spectroscopy, Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography (PyGC) was also used for differentiation.
11. Southern blotting is used for ____________
Explanation: Southern blotting is a method used in molecular biology used for the detection of specific DNA sequences. The electrophoresis-separated DNA fragments are transferred to the membrane and then hybridized with specific probes for detection.
12. The profiles of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are same.
Explanation: The profiles of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid are same but it is distinctive and consistent enough in the differentiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the other species of yeast.
13. In FT-IR, middle-infrared is used to differentiate and identify yeasts.
Explanation: FTIR is a Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The middle-infrared is used in the differentiation and identification of yeasts. FTIR is a physicochemical method which provides a ‘snap-shot’ of the whole cell phenotype (DNA, RNA, Proteins,etc.).
14. Western Blotting is used for __________
d) Nucleic acids
Explanation: Western Blotting is a method used for the detection and characterization of proteins. It is also known as protein blotting or immunoblotting. The protein molecules are separated into PAGE according to their molecular weights.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Fermentation Technology.
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