# Meat Processing Questions and Answers – Chilling of Meat

This set of Meat Processing Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Chilling of Meat”.

1. What is slush icing?
a) Mixture of small ice crystals and liquid water
b) Mixture of large ice crystals and liquid water
c) Mixture of small ice crystals and carbon-dioxide gas
d) Mixture of large ice crystals and carbon-dioxide gas

Explanation: Slush icing is a slurry which contains small ice crystals and the liquid water. The slush ice is used mainly for preserving the meat and fish products. The heat transfer between slush and meat products is more compared to ice blocks.

2. What are the two types of chilling methods?
a) Vapor evaporation and vapor compression method
b) Cryogenic and vapor evaporation method
c) Cryogenic and vapor compression method
d) Vapor evaporation and nitrogen method

Explanation: There are two types of chilling methods that are followed in food industry. They are cryogenic method and vapor compression method. Vapor compression method is a very common and conventional method for chilling the meat and its products.

3. Which of the following component is missing in the line diagram of vapor compression unit?

a) Condenser
b) Heater
c) Chiller
d) Moderator

Explanation: In vapor compression chilling unit, it contains four important units. They are evaporator, compressor, condenser and expansion valve. The evaporator converts the warm air into cold air and is sent through the chilling chamber. Condenser changes the hot vapor into the liquid by removing the heat from the refrigerant.

4. What is the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator that operates with Carnot efficiency between temperatures of -6 oC and 18 oC?
a) 11.1
b) 21.12
c) 12.1
d) 16.25

Explanation:
T (low) = -6°C = 267 K
T (High) = 18°C = 291 K
For a refrigerator the coefficient of performance (COP) max = $$\frac{T (low)}{T (hIgh)-T (low)}$$
= $$\frac{267}{291-267}$$
= 11.125

5. Why carbon dioxide is preferred over nitrogen in cryogenic unit?
a) Carbon dioxide has higher sublimation point
b) Nitrogen has higher sublimation point
c) Carbon dioxide has lower sublimation point
d) Nitrogen has lower sublimation point

Explanation: Carbon dioxide is used more commonly than nitrogen in chilling unit. The carbo dioxide has higher sublimation point than the nitrogen. Unlike nitrogen, the carbon dioxide does not need any gas handling equipment to extract the heat from the food.

6. What is the advantage of gel ice mat?
a) No water leakage
b) Cost effective
c) Easy availability
d) Easy handling

Explanation: The gel ice mat is used for chilling the meat. The chilled water does not directly touch the food item. There will be no water leakage into the product. It is normally water based gel. It is generally used during transportation of meat by airplanes.

7. What is the coefficient of performance of a refrigerator that operates with Carnot efficiency between temperatures of 275 K and 345 K?
a) 3.92
b) 2.12
c) 1.8
d) 5.64

Explanation:
T (low) = 275 K
T (High) = 345 K
For a refrigerator the coefficient of performance (COP) max = $$\frac{T (low)}{T (hIgh)-T (low)}$$
= $$\frac{275}{345-275$$
= 3.92

8. Chilling does not stop spoilage but slows it down considerably.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Chilling is one of the oldest methods for preserving the meat and its products. The chilling process is done at temperature of 40C. This process cannot stop the spoilage completely but can slow down the rate of the microbial growth in the food.

9. One ton of air conditioning can remove 12,000 BTUs of heat each hour.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Tonnage is measured in British Thermal Units abbreviated as BTU. One ton of air conditioning removes nearly 12,000 BTUs of heat per hour. It can be used to calculate the amount of heat required and also the amount of electricity required for the chilling the meat.

10. A refrigerator has coefficient of performance (COP) of 6. How much work must be supplied to the refrigerator in order to remove 400 J of heat from its interior?
a) 66.67J
b) 66.67KJ
c) 666.67J
d) 6.67J

Explanation:
For a refrigerator the coefficient of performance (COP) max = Q(Load)/W
= 400/6
= 66.67J

11. What is the coefficient of performance (COP) of refrigerator where 56 J of work is supplied to the refrigerator in order to remove 125 J of heat from its interior?
a) 2.23
b) 1.22
c) 3.71
d) 4.84

Explanation:
For a refrigerator the coefficient of performance (COP) max = Q(Load)/W
= 125/56
= 2.23

12. A refrigerator is to maintain the meat products kept inside at 4°C. If room temperature is 34° C, calculate the coefficient of performance?
a) 9.23
b) 10.22
c) 14.71
d) 8.81

Explanation:
Temperature inside the refrigerator (T1) = 4°C = 277 K
Room temperature (T2) = 34°C = 307 K
Coefficient of performance = $$\frac{T 1}{T2-T1}$$
= $$\frac{277}{307-277}$$
= 9.23

13. What is recommended temperature for chilling meat?
a) 32° to 36°F
b) 22° to 30°F
c) 45° to 50°F
d) 0° to 20°F

Explanation: The recommended temperature for chilling meat is at 32° to 36°F. The chilled meats can be readily wrapped by shrink packaging or vacuum packaging. It slows down the microbial growth in the product and increases the shelf life.

14. Why is chilled meat redder than at high temperature?
a) Rate of oxidation of the red pigment decreases at lower temperature
b) Rate of oxidation of the red pigment increases at lower temperature
c) Rate of oxidation of the red pigment decreases at higher temperature
d) Rate of oxidation of the red pigment increases at higher temperature

Explanation: The red color in the meat is more stable at lower temperature. At lower temperatures, the oxygen-consuming reactions in the meat are slowdown. Therefore, the rate of oxidation of the red pigment decreases at lower temperature.

15. What are main objectives of the chilling the meat?
a) Retard bacterial growth and extend the shelf-life
b) Retard bacterial growth and Decrease color stability
c) Retard bacterial growth in the meat
d) Extend the shelf-life of the meat

Explanation: The carcasses and meat products are quickly cooled from 40°C down to 0°C. The meat should be dry and should follow good manufacturing practice during the slaughtering process. The objectives of chilling are to retard bacterial growth and extend the shelf-life.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Meat Processing.

To practice all areas of Meat Processing, here is complete set of Multiple Choice Questions and Answers.

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