1. What is the purpose of blanching in fruit and vegetable processing?
a) Enhance flavor
b) Inactivate enzymes
c) Increase vitamin content
d) Improve texture
Explanation: Blanching involves briefly immersing fruits or vegetables in boiling water or steam to inactivate enzymes, which helps maintain color, texture, and flavor during subsequent processing.
2. How should fresh vegetables be transported?
a) Motor vehicles
c) Normal trucks
d) Refrigerated trucks
Explanation: Refrigerated trucks are ideal to transport produce. The ability to adjust the temperature as needed makes it suitable to ship a variety of fruits and vegetables. It increases the shelf life of the product. The quality is maintained until it reaches its destination.
3. What is the selection criterion for freezing the fruits?
a) Partial ripe
c) Fully ripe
d) Cannot keep fruits in freezer
Explanation: The selection criterion for freezing the fruits is it should be fully ripe. But it should also be firm. Freezing under ripe fruits can change the taste of it, it may be bitter in taste. The overripe fruits are always frozen as purees.
4. What are the total soluble solids of fruit juices?
Explanation: The total soluble solids of fruit juice are 25%. Fruit juices are liquid, non-alcoholic products with certain degree of clarity and viscosity. It is obtained through pressing or breaking up of fruits with or without sugar or carbon dioxide addition.
5. Which gas is commonly used in controlled atmosphere storage of fruits and vegetables?
b) Carbon dioxide
Explanation: Nitrogen is often used in controlled atmosphere storage to reduce the levels of oxygen, slowing down respiration and ripening processes in fruits and vegetables.
6. What is the process of refrigeration?
a) Removal of moisture from the product
b) Addition of moisture to the product
c) Removal of unwanted heat from the product
d) Addition of heat to the product
Explanation: Refrigeration is a low temperature process which cools down the product. The heat is removed from the product and is transfer to cooling medium. This removal of heat process decreases the temperature. Generally, ice chilled water or refrigeration medium are used as cooling medium.
7. What is chilling injury in fruits?
a) Caused by temperatures above the freezing point
b) Caused by temperatures variation
c) Caused by temperatures at the freezing point
d) Caused by temperatures below the freezing point
Explanation: Chilling injury is the damage to plant parts caused by temperatures above the freezing point. Plants of tropical and subtropical origin are most susceptible. Chilling-injured leaves become purple or reddish and finally wilt. Both fruit and flowers of sensitive type can be injured.
8. What is the amount of chlorine is used in washing the fruits?
Explanation: Washing is an important unit operation. For effective washing of fruits, 200 ppm of chlorine can be used in water. The pH and temperature should be maintained, to prevent fruits from getting damaged or bruised. Dump and spray washers can be used in industries.
9. Which of the following factors affect the fresh cut fruits?
c) Specific heat
d) Water activity
Explanation: Degree of influence of temperature varies from one to another. Quality deteriorates with increase in temperature. Minimizing temperature rise in packages is a very important element for preservation of quality of packaged Fresh Produce.
10. What is the primary function of antioxidants in fruit processing?
a) Enhance flavor
b) Improve texture
c) Extend shelf life
d) Increase nutritional content
Explanation: Antioxidants help prevent oxidation, extending the shelf life of processed fruits by reducing the deterioration of color, flavor, and nutritional quality.
11. Why is preprocessing treatment done?
a) It is voluntary done for all processed fruits
b) To reduce the post-harvest losses
c) To improve the quality of the product
d) To improve the quality of the product and reduce the post-harvest losses
Explanation: The pre-processing techniques are done to improve the quality of the fruits. It also reduces the post-harvest of the produce. It includes the cleaning of the fruits, sorting according to their physical properties, washing and grading.
12. What factors contribute to the spoilage of vegetables?
a) Microbes, enzymes, air
Explanation: There are many factors that cause spoilage of vegetables. Microbes, enzymes and air are some of the factors. Temperature and time plays an important role in spoilage. The storage area should be clean and free from pests.
13. What is the most cultivated vegetable in the world?
Explanation: Tomatoes are the most cultivated vegetable in the world. It is followed by onions and potatoes. Nearly 177.04 million metric tons of tomatoes are produced globally. Onions are produced nearly 93.17 million metric tons globally.
14. What is the limitation of thermal pasteurization of vegetable juices?
a) Change in nutritional properties
b) Change in sensory properties
c) Change in functional properties
d) Change in sensory, nutritional and functional properties
Explanation: The main aim of conventional preservation methods of fruit and vegetable juices are microbial inactivation and prolonged shelf life. The thermal pasteurization can lead to change in sensory, nutritional and functional properties of vegetables. Therefore, nutrients are added in forms of additives to recompense the loss during processing.
15. Which state is the largest producer of fruits in India?
b) Madhya Pradesh
c) Andhra Pradesh
d) Tamil Nadu
Explanation: Andhra Pradesh manufactured the highest volume of fruits in India. In 2020, it accounts for over 17 million metric tons. Maharashtra is in second with a production of over 11 million metric tons. Since India is the leading producer of fruits and vegetables, it had a huge export market.
16. Which enzyme is used for clarification of fruit juice?
Explanation: Commercial pectic enzymes and other enzymes like amylases, cellulases, and glucose oxidase are now an integral part of fruit juice technology. They are used for juice extraction. They are also used in clarification process to obtain clear juice.
Chapterwise Multiple Choice Questions on Fruits and Vegetables Processing
- Overview of Principles of Preservation
- Deterioration Factors and their Control
- Method of Reducing Deterioration
- Postharvest Handling and Preservation Technologies
- Processed Fruit Products and Packaging
- Processing Plant, Safety, and Regulations
- Alternatives for the Management of Plant Metabolism and Browning
- Effects of Minimal Processing of Fruits and Vegetables
- Fruit Specific Preservation Technology
- Fruit Processing Technology
- Biology, Biochemistry, Nutrition, Microbiology, and Genetics
- Postharvest Technology and Storage Systems
- Processing and Packaging of Vegetables
- Product and Food Plant Safety and HACCP
- Biochemistry of Vegetables
1. MCQ on Overview of Principles of Preservation
The section contains multiple choice questions and answers on dehydration/drying, factors affecting the rate of dehydration, rate of dehydration, pretreatment required for drying, and edible coating.
2. Fruits Processing MCQ on Freezing
The section contains questions and answers on freezing changes in cold storage and canning of fruits.
3. MCQ on Deterioration Factors and their Control
The section contains MCQs on deterioration factors and their control, including chemical, physical and biological changes.
4. Fruits Processing Questions on Method of Reducing Deterioration
The section contains multiple choice questions and answers on technical methods of reducing deterioration and fruit senescence.
5. Postharvest Handling and Preservation Technologies
The section covers questions and answers on postharvest handling and preservation technologies, including transport, freezing, and refrigeration of fruits and vegetables. It also addresses thermal properties, conventional and high-temperature processing techniques, developments in minimal processing, ultra-high temperature processing, and aseptic packaging.
6. Processed Fruit Products and Packaging
The section comprises MCQs covering the manufacturing of fruit beverages, jams, jellies, and fresh-cut fruits. It includes topics such as enzymatic browning of fruits, blanching techniques, and developments in the packaging of fresh fruits.
7. MCQ on Processing Plant, Safety, and Regulations
The section contains multiple choice questions and answers on fruit processing plants and equipment, waste management in fruit processing, microbial safety of fruits, fruit sanitation, as well as fresh and processed fruits and fruit product ordering.
8. Alternatives for the Management of Plant Metabolism and Browning
The section contains questions and answers on acceleration of plant metabolism and browning.
9. MCQ on Effects of Minimal Processing of Fruits and Vegetables
The section contains MCQs on trends in packaging for minimally processed products, as well as pathogenic and degrading microorganisms.
10. Fruit Specific Preservation Technology
The section contains multiple choice questions and answers on harvesting, preprocessing, fresh fruit storage, technology of semi-processed fruit products, fruit sugar preservation technology, fruit juice technologies, fruit processing technology and value added product of fruits.
11. Fruit Processing Technology
The section contains questions and answers on fruit microbiology, heat treatment principles, fruit drying principles, sterilization of juices, irradiation of fruits, and the current scenario of fruit production.
12. Biology, Biochemistry, Nutrition, Microbiology, and Genetics
The section contains MCQs on topics such as microbiology of fresh and processed vegetables, bioactive phytochemicals in vegetables, flavor and sensory characteristics of vegetables, and genetic engineering of vegetable crops.
13. Vegetables Processing MCQ on Postharvest Technology and Storage Systems
The section contains multiple choice questions and answers on postharvest handling systems and storage of vegetables, and postharvest physiology of vegetables.
14. Processing and Packaging of Vegetables
The section contains questions and answers on vegetables processing packaging, fresh cut vegetables, principles of vegetable canning, refrigeration and freezing preservation of vegetables, processing of vegetable juice and blends, fresh vegetables packaging, vegetable fermentation and pickling.
15. Vegetables Processing MCQ on Product and Food Plant Safety and HACCP
The section contains MCQs on product and food plant safety and HACCP, agricultural and manufacturing practices for vegetable production, microbial safety of fresh and processed vegetables.
16. Biochemistry of Vegetables
The section contains Nanotechnology multiple choice questions and answers on primary and secondary metabolites.
Wish you the best in your endeavor to learn and master Fruits and Vegetables Processing!