This set of Molecular Biology Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “The Ribosome : The Cell’s Decoding Machine – 1”.
b) Less than 10
d) More than 50
Explanation: Single polypeptides can perform DNA or RNA synthesis. In contrast, the machinery for polymerizing amino acids is composed of atleast three RNA molecules and more than 50 different proteins.
2. Which of the following is the slowest process among the following?
Explanation: The speed of DNA replication that is, 200 to 1000 nucleotides per second. Translation takes place at a rate of only 2 to 20 amino acids per second.
3. The ribosome is designed in such a way so as to keep up with the speed of the RNA polymerase.
Explanation: The typical prokaryotic rate of translation of 20 amino acids per second corresponding to the translation of 20 amino acids per second corresponding to the translation of 60 nucleotides (20 codons) of mRNA per second. This is similar to the rate of 50 to 100 nucleotides per second synthesized by RNA polymerase.
4. Transcription and translation occurs in the same compartment in the cases of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Explanation: In contrast to the situation in prokaryotes, translation in the eukaryotes is completely separate from transcription. Indeed, these events occur in separate compartments of the cell: transcription occurs in the nucleus, whereas translation occurs in the cytoplasm.
Explanation: Due to transcriptional coupling prokaryotic translation occurs at a rate of 2 -20 amino acid per second. As eukaryotes lack transcriptional coupling translation proceeds at a more leisurely speed of 2 – 4 amino acid per second.
6. Ribosome has two subunits with 4 rRNA molecules. Which of the four rRNAs is found in the decoding center of the ribosome?
Explanation: The ribosome is composed of two subunits the large subunit and the small subunit. The small subunit contains the decoding center and is composed of 16S rRNA and other proteinaceous components.
7. The large ribosomal subunit in prokaryotes has the sedimentation velocity of ___________
Explanation: In bacteria the large subunit has a sedimentation velocity of 50 Svedberg units and is accordingly known as the 50S subunit whereas the small subunit is called the 30S subunit. The intact prokaryotic ribosome is referred to as the 70S subunit.
8. Svedberg unit used to distinguish among the rRNAs and proteins by measuring it’s ___________
a) moecular weight
d) sedimentation velocity
Explanation: The ribosome is made up of two subunits comprising of both RNA and protein. Svedberg unit are once again used to distinguish among ribosomal RNAs and is done by measuring the sedimentation velocity during centrifugation.
i. Binding of the large and small subunit
ii. Binding of mettRNA
iii. Binding of small subunit
iv. mRNA scanning
a) ii, iii, i, iv
b) iii, i, ii, iv
c) iv, iii, i, ii
d) iii, iv, ii, i
Explanation: The correct order of occurrence is as follows:
i. Binding of mettRNA
ii. Binding of small subunit
iii. Binding of the large and small subunit
iv. mRNA scanning.
10. Multiple proteins can be synthesized from an mRNA at a time.
Explanation: Although a ribosome can synthesize only one polypeptide at a time, each mRNA can be translated simultaneously by multiple ribosomes. An mRNA bearing multiple ribosomes is known as a polyribosome or a polysome.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Molecular Biology.
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