# Automata Theory Questions and Answers – Pumping Lemma for Regular Language

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This set of Automata Theory Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Pumping Lemma for Regular Language”.

1. Relate the following statement:
Statement: All sufficiently long words in a regular language can have a middle section of words repeated a number of times to produce a new word which also lies within the same language.
a) Turing Machine
b) Pumping Lemma
c) Arden’s theorem
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Pumping lemma defines an essential property for every regular language in automata theory. It has certain rules which decide whether a language is regular or not.

2. While applying Pumping lemma over a language, we consider a string w that belong to L and fragment it into _________ parts.
a) 2
b) 5
c) 3
d) 6

Explanation: We select a string w such that w=xyz and |y|>0 and other conditions. However, there exists an integer n such that |w|>=n for any wÎL.

3. If we select a string w such that w∈L, and w=xyz. Which of the following portions cannot be an empty string?
a) x
b) y
c) z
d) all of the mentioned

Explanation: The lemma says, the portion y in xyz cannot be zero or empty i.e. |y|>0, this condition needs to be fulfilled to check the conclusion condition.
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4. Let w= xyz and y refers to the middle portion and |y|>0.What do we call the process of repeating y 0 or more times before checking that they still belong to the language L or not?
a) Generating
b) Pumping
c) Producing
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: The process of repeatation is called pumping and so, pumping is the process we perform before we check whether the pumped string belongs to L or not.

5. There exists a language L. We define a string w such that w∈L and w=xyz and |w| >=n for some constant integer n.What can be the maximum length of the substring xy i.e. |xy|<=?
a) n
b) |y|
c) |x|
d) none of the mentioned

Explanation: It is the first conditional statement of the lemma that states that |xy|<=n, i.e. the maximum length of the substring xy in w can be n only.

6. Fill in the blank in terms of p, where p is the maximum string length in L.
Statement: Finite languages trivially satisfy the pumping lemma by having n = ______
a) p*1
b) p+1
c) p-1
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Finite languages trivially satisfy the pumping lemma by having n equal to the maximum string length in l plus 1.

7. Answer in accordance to the third and last statement in pumping lemma:
For all _______ xyiz ∈L
a) i>0
b) i<0
c) i<=0
d) i>=0

Explanation: Suppose L is a regular language . Then there is an integer n so that for any x∈L and |x|>=n, there are strings u,v,w so that
x= uvw
|uv|<=n
|v|>0
for any m>=0, uvmw ∈L.

8. If d is a final state, which of the following is correct according to the given diagram? a) x=p, y=qr, z=s
b) x=p, z=qrs
c) x=pr, y=r, z=s
d) All of the mentioned

Explanation: The FSA accepts the string pqrs. In terms of pumping lemma, the string pqrs is broken into an x portion an a, a y portion qr and a z portion s.

9. Let w be a string and fragmented by three variable x, y, and z as per pumping lemma. What does these variables represent?
a) string count
b) string
c) string count and string
d) none of the mentioned

Explanation: Given: w =xyz. Here, xyz individually represents strings or rather substrings which we compute over conditions to check the regularity of the language.

10. Which of the following one can relate to the given statement:
Statement: If n items are put into m containers, with n>m, then atleast one container must contain more than one item.
a) Pumping lemma
b) Pigeon Hole principle
c) Count principle
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Pigeon hole principle states the following example: If there exists n=10 pigeons in m=9 holes, then since 10>9, the pigeonhole principle says that at least one hole has more than one pigeon.

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