# Microwave Engineering Questions and Answers – Micro-Strip Lines

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This set of Microwave Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Micro-Strip Lines”.

1. Micro strip can be fabricated using:
a) Photo lithographic process
b) Electrochemical process
c) Mechanical methods
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: Microstrip lines are planar transmission lines primarily because it can be fabricated by photolithographic processes and is easily miniaturized and integrated with both passive and active microwave devices.

2. The mode of propagation in a microstrip line is:
a) Quasi TEM mode
b) TEM mode
c) TM mode
d) TE mode

Explanation: The exact fields of a microstrip line constitute a hybrid TM-TE wave. In most practical applications, the dielectric substrate is very thin and so the fields are generally quasi-TEM in nature.

3. Microstrip line can support a pure TEM wave.
a) True
b) False
c) Microstrip supports only TM mode
d) Microstrip supports only TE mode

Explanation: The modeling of electric and magnetic fields of a microstrip line constitute a hybrid TM-TE model. Because of the presence of the very thin dielectric substrate, fields are quasi-TEM in nature. They do not support a pure TEM wave.
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4. The effective di electric constant of a microstrip line is:
a) Equal to one
b) Equal to the permittivity of the material
c) Cannot be predicted
d) Lies between 1 and the relative permittivity of the micro strip line

Explanation: The effective dielectric constant of a microstrip line is given by (∈r + 1)/2 + (∈r-1)/2 * 1/ (√1+12d/w). Along with the relative permittivity, the effective permittivity also depends on the effective width and thickness of the microstrip line.

5. Effective dielectric constant of a microstrip is given by:
a) (∈r + 1)/2 + (∈r-1)/2 * 1/ (√1+12d/w)
b) (∈r+1)/2 + (∈r-1)/2
c) (∈r+1)/2 (1/√1+12d/w)
d) (∈r + 1)/2-(∈r-1)/2

Explanation: The effective dielectric constant of a microstrip line is (∈r + 1)/2 + (∈r-1)/2 * 1/ (√1+12d/w). This relation clearly shows that the effective permittivity is a function of various parameters of a microstrip line, the relative permittivity, effective width and the thickness of the substrate.

6. The effective dielectric constant of a micro strip line is 2.4, then the phase velocity in the micro strip line is given by:
a) 1.5*108 m/s
b) 1.936*108 m/s
c) 3*108 m/s
d) None of the mentioned

Explanation: The phase velocity in a microstrip line is given by C/√∈r. substituting the value of relative permittivity and the speed of light in vacuum, the phase velocity is 1.936*108 m/s.

7. The effective di electric constant of a micro strip line with relative permittivity being equal to 2.6, with a width of 5mm and thickness equal to 8mm is given by:
a) 2.6
b) 1.97
c) 1
d) 2.43

Explanation: The effective dielectric constant of a microstrip line is given by (∈r + 1)/2 + (∈r-1)/2 * 1/ (√1+12d/w). Substituting the given values of relative permittivity, effective width, and thickness, the effective dielectric constant is 1.97.

8. If the wave number of an EM wave is 301/m in air , then the propagation constant β on a micro strip line with effective di electric constant 2.8 is:
a) 602
b) 503.669
c) 150
d) 200

Explanation: The propagation constant β of a microstrip line is given by k0√∈e. ∈e is the effective dielectric constant. Substituting the relevant values, the effective dielectric constant is 503.669.

9. For most of the micro strip substrates:
a) Conductor loss is more significant than di electric loss
b) Di electric loss is more significant than conductor loss
c) Conductor loss is not significant
d) Di-electric loss is less significant

Explanation: Surface resistivity of the conductor (microstrip line) contributes to the conductor loss of a microstrip line. Hence, conductor loss is more significant in a microstrip line than dielectric loss.

10. The wave number in air for EM wave propagating on a micro strip line operating at 10GHz is given by:
a) 200
b) 211
c) 312
d) 209

Explanation: The wave number in air is given by the relation 2πf/C. Substituting the given value of frequency and ‘C’, the wave number obtained is 209.

11. The effective dielectric constant ∈r for a microstrip line:
a) Varies with frequency
b) Independent of frequency
c) It is a constant for a certain material
d) Depends on the material used to make microstrip

Explanation: The effective dielectric constant of a microstrip line is given by (∈r + 1)/2 + (∈r-1)/2 * 1/ (√1+12d/w). The equation clearly indicates that the effective dielectric constant is independent of the frequency of operation, but depends only on the design parameters of a microstrip line.

12. With an increase in the operating frequency of a micro strip line, the effective di electric constant of a micro strip line:
a) Increases
b) Decreases
c) Independent of frequency
d) Depends on the material of the substrate used as the microstrip line