This set of Discrete Mathematics Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Closure and Associativity”.

1. Let (A_{7}, ⊗_{7})=({1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, ⊗_{7}) is a group. It has two sub groups X and Y. X={1, 3, 6}, Y={2, 3, 5}. What is the order of union of subgroups?

a) 65

b) 5

c) 32

d) 18

View Answer

Explanation: Given, (A

_{7}, ⊗

_{7})=({1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, ⊗

_{7}) and the union of two sub groups X and Y, X={1, 3, 6} Y={2, 3, 5} is X∪Y={1, 2, 3, 5, 6} i.e., 5. Here, the order of the union can not be divided by order of the group.

2. A relation (34 × 78) × 57 = 57 × (78 × 34) can have __________ property.

a) distributive

b) associative

c) commutative

d) closure

View Answer

Explanation: For any three elements(numbers) a, b and c associative property describes a × ( b × c ) = ( a × b ) × c [for multiplication]. Hence associative property is true for multiplication and it is true for multiplication also.

3. B_{1}: ({0, 1, 2….(n-1)}, x_{m}) where x_{n} stands for “multiplication-modulo-n” and B_{2}: ({0, 1, 2….n}, x_{n}) where x_{n} stands for “multiplication-modulo-m” are the two statements. Both B_{1} and B_{2} are considered to be __________

a) groups

b) semigroups

c) subgroups

d) associative subgroup

View Answer

Explanation: Here, B

_{1}is the group and identity element is 0, means for all a∈B

_{1}, a+n.0=a. As a<n. But in B

_{2}identity element does not exist. Here, 0 can not be the identity element. For example, for one of the member n of the set we have n+n.0=0, It will be n. So, B

_{2}is not a group. Both B

_{1}and B

_{2}are semigroups as they satisfy closure and associativity property.

4. If the group G has 65 elements and it has two subgroups namely K and L with order 14 and 30. What can be order of K intersection L?

a) 10

b) 42

c) 5

d) 35

View Answer

Explanation: As it is intersection so the order must divide both K and L. Here 3, 6, 30 does not divide 14. But 5 must be the order of the group as it divides the order of intersection of K and L as well as the order of the group.

5. Consider the binary operations on X, a*b = a+b+4, for a, b ∈ X. It satisfies the properties of _______

a) abelian group

b) semigroup

c) multiplicative group

d) isomorphic group

View Answer

Explanation: Since * closed operation, a*b belongs to X. Hence, it is an abelian group.

6. Let * be the binary operation on the rational number given by a*b=a+b+ab. Which of the following property does not exist for the group?

a) closure property

b) identity property

c) symmetric property

d) associative property

View Answer

Explanation: For identity e, a+e=e+a=e, a*e = a+e+ae = a => e=0 and e+a = e+a+ea = a => e=0. So e=0 will be identity, for e to be identity, a*e = a ⇒ a+e+ae = a ⇒ e+ae = 0 and e(1+a) = 0 which gives e=0 or a=-1. So, when a = -1, no identity element exist as e can be any value in that case.

7. Let G be a finite group with two sub groups M & N such that |M|=56 and |N|=123. Determine the value of |M⋂N|.

a) 1

b) 56

c) 14

d) 78

View Answer

Explanation: We know that gcd(56, 123)=1. So, the value of |M⋂N|=1.

8. A group G, ({0}, +) under addition operation satisfies which of the following properties?

a) identity, multiplicity and inverse

b) closure, associativity, inverse and identity

c) multiplicity, associativity and closure

d) inverse and closure

View Answer

Explanation: Closure for all a, b∈G, the result of the operation, a+b, is also in G. Since there is one element, hence a=b=0, and a+b=0+0=0∈G. Hence, closure property is satisfied. Associative for all a, b, c∈G, (a+b)+c=a+(b+c). For example, a=b=c=0. Hence (a+b)+c=a+(b+c)

⟹(0+0)+0=0+(0+0)⟹0=0. Hence, associativity property is satisfied. Suppose for an element e∈G such that, there exists an element a∈G and so the equation e+a=a+e=a holds. Such an element is unique, the identity element property is satisfied. For example, a=e=0. Hence e+a = a+e⟹0+0=0+0⟹0=a. Hence e=0 is the identity element. For each a∈G, there exists an element b∈G (denoted as a-1), such that a+b=b+a=e, where e is the identity element. The inverse element is 0 as the addition of 0 with 0 will be 0, which is also an identity element of the structure.

9. If (M, *) is a cyclic group of order 73, then number of generator of G is equal to ______

a) 89

b) 23

c) 72

d) 17

View Answer

Explanation: We need to find the number of co-primes of 73 which are less than 73. As 73 itself is a prime, all the numbers less than that are co-prime to it and it makes a group of order 72 then it can be of {1, 3, 5, 7, 11….}.

10. The set of even natural numbers, {6, 8, 10, 12,..,} is closed under addition operation. Which of the following properties will it satisfy?

a) closure property

b) associative property

c) symmetric property

d) identity property

View Answer

Explanation: The set of even natural numbers is closed by the addition as the sum of any two of them produces another even number. Hence, this closed set satisfies the closure property.

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