This set of Optical Communications Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Non – Semiconductor Lasers”.
1. ____________________ lasers are presently the major laser source for optical fiber communications.
Explanation: Injection laser coupling using discrete lasers have proved to fruitful. Such lenses provide for relaxation for an alignment tolerances normally required for fiber coupling. Certain non-semiconductor sources are making its lace in the optical fiber communication. At slowly present, injection lasers are mostly used as laser sources.
2. In Nd: YAG lasers, the maximum doping levels of neodymium is ____________
a) 0.5 %
b) 1.5 %
c) 1.8 %
d) 2 %
Explanation: The Nd: YAG laser structure is formed by doping of yttrium- aluminum -garnet (YAG) with neodymium. The energy levels for lasing transition and pumping are provided by neodymium ions. The maximum doping level of neodymium in YAG is around 1.5 %.
3. Which of the following is not a property of Nd: YAG laser that enables its use as an optical fiber communication source?
a) Single mode operation
b) Narrow line-width
c) Long lifetime
d) Semiconductors and integrated circuits
Explanation: Nd: YAG laser is a non-semiconductor laser. It does not include the use of semiconductors and thus cannot take advantage of well-developed technology associated with integrated circuits. Single mode operation, narrow line-width, lifetime are the properties that are useful for optical communication.
4. The Nd: YAG laser has a narrow line-width which is ________________
a) < 0.01 nm
b) > 0.01 nm
c) > 1 mm
d) > 1.6 mm
Explanation: The Nd: YAG laser has several properties which make it an active optical source. One of such properties is its narrow line-width. It is less than 0.01 nm which is useful for reducing dispersion of optical links.
5. The strongest pumping bands is a four level system of Nd: YAG laser at wavelength of range_________________
a) 0.25 and 0.56 nm
b) 0.75 and 0.81 nm
c) 0.12 and 0.23 nm
d) 1 and 2 nm
Explanation: The Nd: YAG laser is a four level system. It consists of number of pumping bands and fluorescent transitions. The strongest pumping bands are the wavelengths of 0.75μm and 0.81μm. and gives lasing transition at 1.064μm and 1.32μm. Single mode emission is usually obtained at these wavelengths.
6. The Nd: YAG laser is costlier than earth-doped glass fiber laser.
Explanation: The most important requirement of the Nd: YAG laser is pumping and modulation. These two requirements tend to give a cost disadvantage in comparison with earth-doped glass fiber laser. Also it is easier and less expensive to fabricate glass fiber in earth-doped laser.
7. It is a resonant cavity formed by two parallel reflecting mirrors separated by a mirror separated by a medium such as air or gas is?
a) Optical cavity
b) Wheatstone’s bridge
d) Fabry-perot resonator
Explanation: Resonant cavity is formed between two mirrors where fiber core doped with earth ions is placed. This cavity is 250-500 μm long and 5 to 15 μm wide. A Fabry-perot resonator oscillates at resonant frequency for which there is high gain.
8. In a three level system, the threshold power decreases inversely with the length of the fiber gain medium.
Explanation: If the imperfection losses are low then in a four level system the threshold power decreases inversely with the length of the fiber gain medium. A three level consists of an optimum length. This optimum length gives the minimum threshold power which is independent of the value of imperfection losses.
9. Which of the following co-dopant is not employed by neodymium and erbium doped silica fiber lasers?
a) Phosphorus pent oxide
Explanation: Silica based glass fibers are proved to be the best host material till date. These silica fibers are doped with neodymium and erbium. These dopants include co-dopants such as phosphorus pent-oxide, germanium and alumina.
10. Dopants levels in glass fiber lasers are generally ___________
c) Same as that of GRIN rod lens laser
d) Same as that of semiconductor laser
Explanation: Dopant levels are low in glass fibers (nearly 400 parts per million). This is because of increasing in concentration quenching which increases with the doping level. It may cause the reduction in the population of the upper lasing level as well as crystallization within the glass matrix.
11. _______________ fibers include addition of lead fluoride to the core glass in order to raise the relative refractive index.
Explanation: Up-conversion pumping of laser material is used to convert an infrared laser output to a visible laser output. ZBLANP is host material on which laser action at all wavelengths can be obtained by pumping. The relative refractive index is increased by addition of lead fluoride which makes it a very interesting host material.
12. The lasing output of the basic Fabry-perot cavity fiber is restricted to between ____________
a) 1 and 2 nm
b) 5 and 10 nm
c) 3 and 6 nm
d) 15 and 30 nm
Explanation: the gain spectrum of rare earth ions may be seen over a wavelength range of 50 nm. The lasing output will thus be narrow unless the dielectric on the mirror is arranged. Such a narrow line-width is not used for a broadband optical source.
13. In Fabry-perot laser, the lower threshold is obtained by ___________
a) Increasing the refractive index
b) Decreasing the refractive index
c) Reducing the slope efficiency
d) Increasing the slope efficiency
Explanation: The finesse of Fabry-perot cavity provides a measure of its filtering properties. When the finesse is high the splitting ratio is low thus lowering the laser threshold in an optical cavity without mirror. In Fabry-perot laser, mirrors are present and thus lower threshold is obtained by reducing the slope efficiency.
14. When did the non-semiconductor laser developed?
Explanation: Non-semiconductor sources are crystalline and glass wave-guiding structures. They are doped with rare earth ions and are good optical sources. The development of these sources started in the year 1985. Example: Nd: YAG laser.
15. Y3Al5 O12 is a molecular formula for _____________
a) Ytterbium aluminate
b) Yttrium oxide
c) Ytterbium oxy-aluminate
d) Yttrium-aluminum garnet
Explanation: The atomic number of Yttrium is 39. It is the base element of Yttrium-aluminum garnet. Y3Al5 O12, doped with rare earth ion neodymium to form Nd: YAG laser structure.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Optical Communications.
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