**Pascal triangle in Java** is a matrix of the binomial coefficients. The number of entries in every row increases by 1 starting from the first row having 1 entry and the second row having 2 entries and so on.

**Example:**

1 -------------> Top of the triangle 1 1 \+/ 1 2 1 \+/ \+/ 1 3 3 1

Write a Java program to print the pascal’s triangle of a given size.

For every row of the matrix calculate the binomial coefficients C(row,0) to C(row, row) and display them.

The binomial coefficient can be calculated using the formula:

**C(n,r) = n!/((n-r)!*r!)**

There are several ways to print a pascal triangle program in Java. Let’s look at the different techniques to write a pascal triangle program.

- Print Pascal Triangle in Java
- Print Pascal Triangle in Java using Recursion
- Pascal Triangle in Java using 2D Array

A Java program to print Pascal’s triangle using nested loops and the binomial coefficient formula.

Here is the source code of the Java Program to print Pascal’s triangle using nested loops and the binomial coefficient formula. The program is successfully compiled and tested using the IDE IntelliJ Idea in Windows 7. The program output is also shown below.

/* * Java Program to print Pascal's triangle using nested loops */ public class PascalTriangle { public static void main(String[] args) { int rows = 5; for (int i = 0; i < rows; i++) { int number = 1; // Print initial spaces for (int j = 0; j < rows - i; j++) { System.out.print(" "); } for (int j = 0; j <= i; j++) { System.out.print(number + " "); number = number * (i - j) / (j + 1); } System.out.println(); } } }

1. This program prints Pascal’s triangle with the number of rows specified by the **rows** variable.

2. The triangle is printed using nested loops and the binomial coefficient formula.

3. Each number in the triangle is calculated and printed using the formula **(i – j) / (j + 1)**, where i is the row number and j is the column number.

**Time Complexity: O(n ^{2})**

The time complexity of the Pascal Triangle program is O(n

^{2}) because it uses nested loops to calculate the values of the triangle, where n is the number of lines.

**Space Complexity: O(1)**

The space complexity of the Pascal Triangle program is O(1), as it does not use any additional data structures that scale with the input size. It only uses a constant amount of memory to store the loop variables and the number variable.

1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 4 6 4 1

This Java program prints Pascal’s triangle of a given size using a recursive approach

Here is the source code of the Java Program to print the Pascal’s Triangle of a given size. The program is successfully compiled and tested using the IDE IntelliJ Idea in Windows 7. The program output is also shown below.

//Java program to print Pascal's Triangle of a given size. import java.io.BufferedReader; import java.io.InputStreamReader; public class PascalTriangle { // Function to calculate factorial of a number static int factorial(int n) { int fact = 1; int i; for(i=1; i<n; i++) { fact*=i; } return i; } // Function to display the pascal triangle static void display(int n) { int i; int coefficient; int line; for(line=1;line<=n;line++) { for(i=0;i<=line;i++) { System.out.print((factorial(line)/factorial(line-i) * factorial(i)) + " "); } System.out.println(); } } // main Function to read user input public static void main(String[] args){ BufferedReader br=new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in)); int n; System.out.println("Enter the size"); try { n = Integer.parseInt(br.readLine()); } catch(Exception e){ System.out.println("Invalid Input"); return; } System.out.println("The Pascal's Triangle is"); display(n); } }

1. In function display(), the loop for(line=1;line<=n;line++) is used to print n lines of the triangle.

2. The nested loop for(i=1;i<=line;i++) is used to display various coefficients.

3. The various coefficients are calculated using the factorial function, as mentioned in the problem solution.

**Time Complexity: O(n ^{2})**

The time complexity of the Pascal Triangle program is O(n

^{2}) because it uses nested loops to calculate the values of the triangle, where n is the number of lines.

**Space Complexity: O(1)**

The space complexity is O(1) because the program only uses a few integer variables and does not store any data in a data structure.

**Testcase 1:** In this case, the entered value is “4” to print the pascal triangle.

Enter the size 4 The Pascal's Triangle is 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1

**Testcase 2:** In this case, the entered value is “12” to print the pascal triangle.

Enter the size 12 The Pascal's Triangle is 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 4 6 4 1 1 5 10 10 5 1 1 6 15 20 15 6 1 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1 1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1 1 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9 1 1 10 45 120 210 252 210 120 45 10 1 1 11 55 165 330 462 462 330 165 55 11 1

The program uses a 2D array to store the values of the triangle, calculates the values of the elements using a nested loop, and prints the triangle using nested loops.

Here is the source code of the Java Program to print the Pascal’s Triangle of a given size. The program is successfully compiled and tested using the IDE IntelliJ Idea in Windows 7. The program output is also shown below.

import java.util.Scanner; public class PascalTriangle { public static void main(String[] args) { Scanner sc = new Scanner(System.in); System.out.print("Enter the number of rows: "); int rows = sc.nextInt(); int[][] pascal = new int[rows][rows]; for(int i = 0; i < rows; i++) { pascal[i][0] = 1; } for(int i = 1; i < rows; i++) { for(int j = 1; j < rows; j++) { pascal[i][j] = pascal[i-1][j-1] + pascal[i-1][j]; } } // Print the Pascal Triangle for(int i = 0; i < rows; i++) { for(int j = 0; j <= i; j++) { System.out.println(pascal[i][j] + " "); } System.out.println(); } } }

1. The program asks the user how many rows they want in the triangle.

2. A 2D array is created with the specified number of rows and columns.

3. It uses a loop to create an empty triangle with the correct number of rows.

4. The first and last number of each row is 1.

5. The program uses another loop to fill in the rest of the numbers in each row.

6. Each number is the sum of the two numbers above it from the previous row.

7. The program uses a loop to print the triangle to the screen.

**Time Complexity: O(n ^{2})**

The time complexity of the Pascal Triangle program is O(n

^{2}) because it uses nested loops to calculate the values of the triangle, where n is the number of lines.

**Space Complexity: O(n ^{2})**

The space complexity is also O(n

^{2}) because it stores all the values in a 2D array.

**Testcase 1:** In this case, the entered value is “5” to print the pascal triangle.

Enter the size 5 The Pascal's Triangle is 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 4 6 4 1

**Testcase 2:** In this case, the entered value is “10” to print the pascal triangle.

Enter the size 10 The Pascal's Triangle is 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 4 6 4 1 1 5 10 10 5 1 1 6 15 20 15 6 1 1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1 1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1 1 9 36 84 126 126 84 36 9 1

To practice programs on every topic in Java, please visit “Programming Examples in Java”, “Data Structures in Java” and “Algorithms in Java”.

**If you find any mistake above, kindly email to [email protected]**

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