This tutorial explains Linux “more” command, options and its usage with examples.
more [options] filename
more command is used to display text in the terminal screen. It allows only backward movement.
Programs of this sort are called pagers. “more” is a very basic pager, originally allowing only forward navigation through a file, though newer implementations do allow for limited backward movement.
Here’s the listing of example usage of “more” command:
We will be using sample.txt file as an example.
sanfoundry-> cat sample.txt Line 1 Line 2 Line 3 Line 4 Line 5 Line 6 Line 7 Line 8 Line 9 Line 10
1. To see the contents of the file(more file_path):
sanfoundry-> more sample.txt Line 1 Line 2 Line 3 Line 4 Line 5 Line 6 Line 7 Line 8 Line 9 Line 10
2. To Clear screen before displaying(more -c file_path):
sanfoundry-> more -c sample.txt Line 1 Line 2 Line 3 Line 4 Line 5 Line 6 Line 7 Line 8 Line 9 Line 10
The output is shown on the new screen.
3. To Specify how many lines are printed in the screen for a given file(more -n file_path):
sanfoundry-> more -4 sample.txt Line 1 Line 2 Line 3 Line 4 --More--(39%)
Here first n numbers of lines with the % amount of the lines are printed. Hit CTRL+c to get the shell prompt back.
4. To Start up the file from the given number(more +n file_path):
sanfoundry-> more +4 sample.txt Line 4 Line 5 Line 6 Line 7 Line 8 Line 9 Line 10
5. To Display error messages rather than ringing the terminal bell if an unrecognized command is used(more -d ..):
This is helpful for inexperienced users.:
sanfoundry-> more -d sample sample: No such file or directory
6. Doesn’t display extra blank lines(more -s file_path):
sanfoundry-> cat sam.txt Line 1 Line 2 Line 3 Line 4 sanfoundry-> more -s sam.txt Line 1 Line 2 Line 3 Line 4
Here we can see that there are 4 blank lines between Line 2 and Line 3. But with the addition of “-s” option the blank lines are reduced from 4 to 1.
7. To Displays text two lines before the first time text appears(more +/pattern file_path):
sanfoundry-> cat sam.txt Hi HI I am good boy sanfoundry-> more +/good sam.txt ...skipping I am good boy
Here as you can see that to display the output just before two lines, the further lines are skipped. This is very useful in debugging the code.
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