# Wireless & Mobile Communications Questions & Answers – Scattering

This set of Wireless & Mobile Communications Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Scattering”.

1. Scattering occurs when medium consists of objects with dimensions _______ compared to the wavelength.
a) Same
b) Small
c) Large
d) Very large

Explanation: Scattering occurs when the medium through which the wave travels consists of objects with dimensions that are small compared to the wavelength. But the number of obstacles per unit volume is large.

2. Scattered waves are produced at ________
a) Rough surface
c) Smooth surface
d) Horizon

Explanation: Scattered waves are produced by rough surfaces, small objects or by other irregularities in the channel. In practice, foliage, street signs, and lamp posts induce scattering in a mobile communication system.

3. The actual received signal is ______ than what is predicted by reflection and diffraction model.
a) Weaker
b) Equal
c) Stronger
d) Very weak

Explanation: The actual received signal in a mobile radio environment is often stronger than what is predicted by reflection and diffraction model alone. This is because when a radio wave incidence upon the rough surface, reflected energy is spread out in all directions.

4. Scattered energy in all directions provides _________ at a receiver.
a) Channels
b) Loss of signal
c) No energy

Explanation: Objects such as lamp posts and trees tend to scatter energy in all directions. They provide additional radio energy at a receiver. Scattering may also refer to particle-particle collisions between molecules, atoms, electrons, photons and other particles.

5. Surface roughness are often tested using __________
a) Rayleigh criterion
b) Lawson criterion
c) Barkhausen stability criterion
d) Nyquist criterion

Explanation: Rough surface is often tested using a Rayleigh criterion. It defines the critical height of surface protuberances for a given angle of incidence. The Rayleigh criterion is the criterion for the minimum resolvable detail. The imaging process is said to be diffraction-limited when the first diffraction minimum of the image of one source point coincides with the maximum of another.
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6. A surface is considered rough if protuberance is ________ than critical height.
a) Equal
b) Less
c) Greater
d) No relation

Explanation: A surface is considered rough if its minimum to maximum protuberance is greater than the critical height calculated using Rayleigh criterion. It is considered smooth if protuberance is less than critical height.

7. RCS of scattering object is defined as the ratio of _______
a) Power density of signal scattered to power density of radio wave incident
b) Power density of radio wave incident to power density of signal scattered
c) Power density of incident waves to power density of reflected wave
d) Power density of reflected wave to power density of incident waves

Explanation: The radar cross section of a scattering object is defined as the ratio of the power density of the signal scattered in the direction of the receiver to the power density of the radio wave incident upon the scattering object. It has unit of square meters.

8. Which equation is used to calculate the received power due to scattering for urban mobile radio system?
a) Laplace equation
b) Bistatic radar equation
c) Poisson’s equation
d) Maxwell equation

Explanation: For urban mobile radio systems, models based on bistatic radar equation is used to compute the received power due to scattering in the far field. This equation describes the propagation of wave in free space which impinges on a scattering object and then reradiated in the direction of receiver.

9. In ionosphere propagation, waves arriving at the receiving antenna using the phenomenon of _______
a) Scattering
b) Refraction
c) Diffraction

Explanation: Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths. It is due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.

10. Power density is basically termed as ________ power per unit area.
a) Reflected
b) Refracted
d) Diffracted

Explanation: Power density is the amount of power (time rate of energy transfer) per unit volume. It is also termed as radiated power per unit area. In energy transformers including batteries, fuel cells, motors, etc., power density refers to a volume. It is then also called volume power density.

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