# Wireless & Mobile Communications Questions & Answers – Outdoor Propagation Models

This set of Wireless & Mobile Communications Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Outdoor Propagation Models”.

1. Which of the following is not an outdoor propagation model?
a) Longley-Rice model
b) Ericson Multiple Breakpoint Model
c) Hata model
d) Okumura model

Explanation: Ericson multiple breakpoint model is an indoor propagation model. Longley-Rice, Hata and Okumura model are outdoor propagation models. Most of these models are based on a systematic interpretation of measurement data obtained in the service area.

2. Longley –Rice model is applicable to _________
a) Point to point communication
b) All to all communication
c) Point to multipoint communication
d) Multipoint microwave distribution sstem

Explanation: The Longley-Rice model is applicable to point-to-point communication systems in the frequency range from 40 MHz to 100 GHz. They are applicable for different kinds of terrain. Terrain profile may vary from a simple curved Earth profile to a highly mountainous profile.

3. Longley-Rice prediction model is also referred as _________
a) Okumura model
b) Hata model
c) ITS irregular terrain model
d) Bertoni model

Explanation: The Longley Rice prediction model is also referred to as ITS irregular terrain model. The model is based on electromagnetic theory and on statistical analyses of both terrain features and radio measurements. It predicts the median attenuation of a radio signal as a function of distance and the variability of the signal in time and in space.

4. The extra term for additional attenuation due to urban clutter near the receiving antenna is called __________
a) Power factor
b) Urban gain
c) Clutter factor
d) Urban factor

Explanation: The urban factor (UF) is derived by comparing the predictions by the original Longley –Rice model with those obtained by Okumura. It deals with radio propagation in urban areas and is relevant to mobile radio.

5. Longley Rice model’s merit is to provide corrections due to environmental factors.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: One shortcoming of the Longley –Rice model is that it does not provide a way of determining corrections due to environmental factors. It does not consider correction factors to account for the effects of buildings and foliage. Multipath is also not considered.

6. Which method is used by Edwards and Durkin algorithm to calculate the loss associated with diffraction edges?
a) Epstein and Peterson method
b) Interpolation method
c) Knife edge diffraction method
d) Fresnel- Kirchoff method

Explanation: The Edwards and Durkin algorithm uses Epstein and Peterson method to calculate the loss associated with two diffraction edges. It is the sum of two attenuations. First is loss at second diffraction edge caused by first diffraction edge. And second is the loss at receiver caused by second diffraction edge.

7. Durkin’s model can read digital elevation map.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Durkin’s model is very attractive because it can read in a digital elevation map and perform a site specific propagation computation on the elevation data. It can produce a signal strength contour that is reported to be good within a few dB.

8. Which of the most widely used model for signal prediction in urban areas?
a) Ericsson Multiple Breakpoint Model
b) Log distance path loss model
c) Okumura model
d) Attenuation factor model

Explanation: Okumura’s model is one of the most widely used models for signal prediction in urban areas. This model is applicable for frequencies in the range 150 MHz to 1920 MHz (Extrapolated upto 3000 MHz).

9. Okumura model is applicable for distances of _________
a) 1 m to 10 m
b) 1 km to 100 km
c) 100 km to 1000 km
d) 10 km to 10000 km

Explanation: Okumura’s model is applicable for distances of 1 km to 100 km. It can be used for base station antenna heights ranging from 30 m to 1000 m. Okumura developed a set of curves giving the median attenuation relative to free space in an urban area.

10. Okumura model is considered to be complex in predicting path loss.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Okumura’s model is considered to be among the simplest and best in terms of accuracy in path loss prediction for mature cellular and land mobile radio system. It is very practical and has become a standard for system planning in modern land mobile system in Japan.

11. Which of the following is the major disadvantage of the Okumura model?
a) Complex
b) Inaccurate
c) Not practical
d) Slow response to rapid change in terrain

Explanation: The major disadvantage with the model is its slow response to rapid changes in terrain. Therefore the model is fairly good in urban and suburban areas, but not as good in rural areas. Common standard deviations between predicted and measured path loss values are 10 dB to 14 dB.

12. The Hata model is empirical formulation of which model?
a) Okumura model
b) Longley- Rice model
c) Durkin’s model
d) Walfisch and Bertoni model

Explanation: The Hata model is an empirical formulation of the graphical path loss data provided by Okumura. It is valid from 150 MHz to 1500 MHz. Hata presented the urban area propagation loss as a standard formulation. It supplied correct Equations for application to other situations.

13. Hata model is well suited for _________
a) Personal communication system
b) Large cell mobile radio system
c) Small cell mobile radio system

Explanation: Hata model is well suited for large cell mobile radio systems. But it is not well suited for personal communication system (PCS) which have cells on the order of 1 km radius. Hata model does not have any path specific corrections which are available in Okumura model.

14. Which of the following considers the impact of rooftops and building?
a) Okumura model
b) Hata model
c) Walfisch and Bertoni model
d) Longley- Rice model

Explanation: The impact of rooftops and building height is considered by Walfisch and Bertoni model. It uses diffraction to predict average signal strength at street level. It considers path loss to be a product of three factors.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Wireless & Mobile Communications.

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