# Video Engineering MCQ Questions and Answers – Television Fundamentals – Aspect Ratio, Pixels, Resolution and Bandwidth

This set of Video Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers focuses on “Television Fundamentals – Aspect Ratio, Pixels, Resolution and Bandwidth”.

1. What is defined as the width to height ratio of a picture frame?
a) Aspect ratio
b) Scanning
c) Flicker
d) Skimming

Explanation: The width to height ratio of a picture frame is known as aspect ratio. The width is kept longer than height because the horizontal dimension of a picture is usually greater than its vertical dimension. Eye has more width and height. Hence, eyes can view with more ease when width of a picture is greater than its height.

2. What is the aspect ratio in the cinemas?
a) 1:2
b) 5:7
c) 4:3
d) 3:2

Explanation: From the very beginning, the motion pictures (cinemas) have adopted the aspect ratio of 4:3. This facilitates the direct transmission and reception of movies without wastage of raster or film area. The aspect ratio of 4:3 is accepted for cinema screen and TV screen. For wider screen of HDTVs, 16:9 aspect ratio has been standardized.

3. There are two common TV screen shapes.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: There are two common TV screen shapes, the squarish shape of old CRT TVs, and the widescreen shape of today’s HDTVs. TV shows will also have either a 4:3 or 16:9 ratio. While virtually all new HD shows are in 16:9 ratio. You will still find some TV broadcasts in the conventional 4:3 ratio.

4. What is termed as the conversion of light from a picture into video signal by scanning process?
a) Aspect ratio
b) Synchronization
c) Resolution
d) Pixels

Explanation: Conversion of light from a picture into video signal by scanning process in which a small part of a picture is covered by the spot of a scanning beam is called pixel or picture element. As the aspect ratio is 4:3, the number of pixels on a horizontal scanning line will be 4/3 times the pixels on the vertical line.

5. The lines which do not reproduce pixels are called active lines.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The above statement is false. The lines which reproduce pixels are called active lines. The total number of active scanning lines (Na) is equal to total scanning lines (Nt) per frame minus the lines which are lost (Nl) during vertical blanking.
Na = Nt – Nl
Therefore,
Na = 625 – 40 = 585

6. What is the effect called in which 70 percent of pixels are reproduced by active scanning lines?
a) Kell
b) Inductive
c) Mesomeric
d) Electromeric

Explanation: The arrangement of pixels is uneven and random in a picture. Scanning beam may cover partly two pixels thus it misses some pixels. In this way around 30 percent pixels are lost. This means around only 70 percent of pixels are reproduced by active scanning lines. This effect is known as kell effect.

7. What is the resolution of Indian PAL system?
a) 140 lines
b) 340 lines
c) 410 lines
d) 40 lines

Explanation: The resolution of a TV system is expressed in terms of the vertical resolution. Indian PAL (Phase Alteration by Line) system has resolution of about 410 lines while for American NTSC (National Television Systems Committee) system, it is about 340 lines.

8. What is the common name for Ultra high definition television?
a) 1K
b) 2K
c) 3K
d) 4K

Explanation: The newest standard is officially known as Ultra high definition, but is commonly just called “4K” because it’s roughly 4000 pixels across. To be precise, a 4k TV screen is 3840 pixels across by 2160 down, for a staggering 8,294,400 total pixels which is 4 times the resolution of 1080p.

9. Which one is the correct formula of bandwidth in television fundamentals?
a) 1 / T = Rh / 2t
b) 1 / S = Rh / 2t
c) 1 / B = Rh / 2V
d) 1 / T = Rb / 2v

Explanation: Bandwidth means the highest video frequency related to the time taken in scanning two nearly spaced pixels. Say time period “T” is the time taken in scanning one cycle or two adjacent pixels. Also say ‘t’ is the time taken in scanning one line.
So in t sec = Rh pixels are scanned
In what time (T?) = 2 pixels will be scanned
Therefore T = 2t / Rh
Hence, f = Bandwidth = 1 / T = Rh / 2t

10. What depends on the frequency of frame in television fundamentals?
a) Aspect ratio
b) Pixels
c) Bandwidth
d) Resolution

Explanation: As smaller is the size of pixels, less would be time taken in scanning two adjacent pixels, better will be the resolution and hence time period is low and the bandwidth required is high. Bandwidth depends on frequency of frame. Greater the frame frequency less will be the time taken in scanning one line and hence higher will be the bandwidth.

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