This set of Vector Biology Problems focuses on “Vectors for Mammals – 3”.
1. What are somatic cells?
a) Non-germline cells
b) Yeast cells
c) Genetically engineered cells
d) Hybrid vectors
Explanation: Somatic cells are the ones that do not contribute to the germline. Unlike the plant cells, animal somatic cells are restricted in their developmental potential.
2. Transformation of animal germline cells can be done by gene transfer to _____________
a) Totipotent cells
b) Plant cells
c) Yeast cells
d) Bacterial cells
Explanation: Transformation of the animal germline cells required gene transfer to pluripotent or totipotent cells, such as eggs, early embryos, isolated germ cells or gametes.
3. What is the delivery of exogenous genetic material to animal cells, using a vector known as?
Explanation: Delivery of exogenous genetic material using a viral vector is known as transduction. The transgene is either added to a complete viral genome or used to replace one or more genes.
4. What is a transgene?
a) Viral vector gene
b) Exogenous genetic material
c) Endogenous genetic material
d) Bacterial gene
Explanation: The process of gene transfer to animal cells can be done by several mechanisms. In all of these the exogenous genetic material is incorporated into the animal cells. This exogenous genetic material is called a transgene.
5. What is Bactofection?
a) Bacterial infection
b) Bacterial hybrid vector
c) Gene transfer using bacteria
d) Recombinant plasmid
Explanation: Bacterial gene delivery is termed Bactofection. The transgene in this mechanism is delivered as a part of the bacterial plasmid.
6. What is “Transfection” in gene delivery sense?
a) Gene delivery using bacterial vectors
b) Gene delivery using viral vectors
c) Non-biological gene delivery
Explanation: Some delivery systems are described as non-biological because biological delivery vectors are not required. These methodical approaches are called transfection.
7. In how many stages does the transformation of animal cells occur?
Explanation: The transformation of animal cells occurs in two stages, the first involving the introduction of DNA into the cell and the second involving its incorporation into the nucleus.
8. Transfection is more efficient than the integration of foreign DNA.
Explanation: Transfection is much more efficient than integration, hence a large proportion of transfected cells never integrate the foreign DNA they contain.
9. What does Transient transfection reflect?
a) Changed properties of host cell
b) Incorporation of origin
c) The short period of replication
d) Incorporation of exogene
Explanation: The DNA is maintained in the nucleus in an extrachromosomal state for just a short time before it is diluted and degraded.
10. In a stable transfection, which type of genetic locus is formed?
Explanation: In a small proportion of transfected cells, the DNA will integrate into the genome, forming a new genetic locus that will be inherited by all clonal descendants.
11. Stable transformation results in a __________
a) Transduced cell
c) Cell line
d) Hybrid vector
Explanation: The formation of a new genetic locus, termed as stable transformation results in the formation of a cell line.
12. How can the transformed cells be isolated from the large background?
a) By manipulation
b) By selection
c) By using viral vectors
d) By conjugation
Explanation: Since integration is an insufficient process, the rare stably transformed cells must be isolated from the large background of non-transformed and transiently transformed cells by selection.
13. Mutant cell lines are required for which type of selectable markers?
d) Foreign gene
Explanation: Three types of selectable markers have been developed for animal cells. Endogenous selectable markers are already present in the cellular genome, and mutant cell lines are required when they are used.
14. What is HSV?
a) Human virus
b) Human enzyme
c) Herpes simplex virus
d) Human simplex virus
Explanation: The mouse cells deficient for the enzyme thymidine kinase could be stably transformed to a wild-type phenotype by transfecting them with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) Tk gene.
15. Salvage pathway is for the synthesis of _________
c) Thymidine kinase gene
Explanation: Cells positive for TK can be selected on HAT medium. This is because both the enzymes are required for nucleotide biosynthesis via the salvage pathway.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Vector Biology & Gene Manipulation.
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