This set of Vector Biology Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced people focuses on “Vectors for Plants – 3”.
1. Which of the following entities of a plant contain their own genomes, distinct from the nucleus?
a) Golgi apparatus
Explanation: If biolistics is used to integrate DNA in a plant embryo, then some particles may penetrate one or more of the chloroplasts present in the cells.
2. Chloroplast genomes are smaller than the nuclear genomes present in the plants.
Explanation: Chloroplasts contain their own genomes, distinct from and much shorter than the DNA molecules in the nucleus and DNA can become integrated into this chloroplasts genome.
3. By which mechanism does the transfer of genes into the chloroplast genome take place?
b) Homologous recombination
c) Restriction digestion
Explanation: The DNA to be cloned must be flanked by sequences similar to the region of the chloroplast genome into which the DNA is to be inserted so that insertion can take place through homologous recombination.
4. What is the advantage of inserting a gene of interest into the chloroplast?
a) Increased expression
b) Decreased expression
c) Ease of replication
d) Lower capital costs
Explanation: As a plant cell contains tens of chloroplasts whereas a nucleus is present only as a single copy, a gene inserted into the chloroplast genome is likely to be expressed at a higher level.
5. What is the drawback of using plant viruses as cloning vectors?
a) Small size
b) Large size
c) RNA as genetic material
d) DNA as genetic material
Explanation: The main problem of using plant viruses as cloning vectors is that the vast majority of plant viruses have genomes not of DNA but RNA, and manipulations with RNA are more difficult.
6. Which of the following is a plant virus?
Explanation: Only two classes of DNA virus are known to infect higher plants, the caulimovirus and the geminivirus, and neither is ideally suited for gene cloning.
7. Which was the first plant used for cloning experiment?
Explanation: One of the first successful plant genetic experiments happened in 1984, used a caulimovirus vector to clone a new gene into turnip plants.
8. Which problem is associated with a caulimovirus?
b) In vivo packaging
c) Restriction issues
d) Poor ligation
Explanation: Caulimovirus vector was first used to clone genes in a turnip plant. The basic issue with this vector is that the total size of the genome is constrained by the need to package it into its protein coat.
9. Which basic strategy is used in the generation of cloning vector CaMV?
a) Helper phage
c) Hybrid vector
Explanation: The Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) genome lacks several essential genes, which means that it can carry a large DNA insert but cannot by itself direct infection.
10. What is provided by the viral genome in cloning experiments using CaMV?
a) Virus proteins
Explanation: Plants are inoculated with the vector DNA along with a normal CaMV genome. The normal viral genome provides the genes needed for the cloning vector to be packaged into virus proteins.
11. Caulimoviruses have a narrow host range.
Explanation: The host range of caulimovirus is extremely narrow. This restricts cloning experiments to just a few pants, mainly brassicas such as turnips, cabbages.
12. Which of the following exceptional quality is related to caulimovirus?
a) Active promoters
b) Active repressors
c) Small size
d) Host range
Explanation: Caulimoviruses have been important in genetic engineering as the source of highly active promoters that work in all plants and used to obtain expression of genes introduced by Ti plasmid cloning vector.
13. Natural hosts of geminivirus include _________
Explanation: Geminiviruses are particularly interesting because their natural hosts include monocots such as wheat and maize and therefore they are potential vectors for these.
14. What are problems associated with geminiviruses?
a) Deletions and rearrangements
b) Size irregularity
c) Infect only monocots
d) Low gene expression
Explanation: The biggest problem associated with monocot viruses Geminivirus is that they undergo rearrangements and deletions, which would scramble up any additional DNA that has been inserted.
15. What is the viral induced gene silencing technique (VIGS) that uses geminivirus?
a) Silencing technique
b) Gene silencing technique
c) Expression technique
d) Overexpression technique
Explanation: VIGS is a technique that incorporates plant virus Geminivirus for investigating the functions of individual plant genes.
Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Vector Biology & Gene Manipulation.
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