# Total Quality Management Questions and Answers – Statistics for TQMR – 1

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This set of Total Quality Management Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Statistics for TQMR – 1”.

1. Information is processed data.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Information is processed data. Data are raw observations that are collected randomly. Information is meaningful data and is presented in an ordered manner.

2. Discrete data is also known as ________
a) Continuous data
b) Disputed data
c) Variable data
d) Attribute data

Explanation: Discrete data is also known as Attribute data. They are countable in nature. For example, the number of defective products in a production cycle is an example of attribute data.

3. Number of scrap items in a factory is _______
a) Continuous data
b) Disputed data
c) Discrete data
d) Variable data

Explanation: Number of scrap items in a factory is discrete data. It can be counted and given a number, for example 36 or 45. It is not a specified number. Discrete data is also known as Attribute data.
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4. Variable data is also known as ______
a) Continuous data
b) Disputed data
c) Discrete data
d) Attribute data

Explanation: Variable data is also known as continuous data. Lengths, width, height of an object are examples of variable data. They are gathered by taking actual measurements.

5. The data set for measuring length of an object which is 50 cm includes five readings which are 40 cm, 40 cm, 41 cm, 40.5 cm, and 41 cm. What can be the conclusion made by this study?
a) Data is precise and accurate
b) Data is precise but not accurate
c) Data is neither precise nor accurate
d) Data is not precise but accurate

Explanation: As the data set has values which are close to each other, the data set is precise. But it is not accurate as the target value is 50 cm and there is a huge difference between data set values and the target value.

6. The data set for measuring width of an object which is 50 cm includes five readings which are 49.5 cm, 49.5 cm, 50.5 cm, 50.3 cm, and 49.7 cm. What can be the conclusion made by this study?
a) Data is precise and accurate
b) Data is precise but not accurate
c) Data is neither precise nor accurate
d) Data is not precise but accurate

Explanation: As the data set values are close to target value therefore the data set is both accurate and precise. Precision is closeness of the data set values to each other and accuracy is the closeness of the data set values to the chosen target value.

7. The data set for measuring height of an object which is 80 cm includes five readings which are 40.5 cm, 81 cm, 72 cm, 48 cm, 50 cm. What can be the conclusion made by this study?
a) Data is precise and accurate
b) Data is precise but not accurate
c) Data is neither precise nor accurate
d) Data is not precise but accurate

Explanation: The data set values are neither close to each other nor are they close to the chosen target value (80 cm). Therefore, the data set values are neither accurate nor precise.

8. If the diameter of a shaft is measured as 60 mm, 62 mm, 63 mm, 61 mm, 60 mm. What is the mean diameter that can be considered for calculation?
a) 61.1 mm
b) 61.2 mm
c) 61.3 mm
d) 61.4 mm

Explanation: The mean is calculated as the sum of observed values divided by the number of observed values. The sum of the observed values is 306. The number of observed values is 5. Therefore, the mean diameter of the shaft is 306/5=61.2 mm.

9. Which of the following is not a measure of central tendency?
a) Range
b) Mean
c) Median
d) Mode

Explanation: Mean, median, and mode are the three measures of central tendency. They describe the centre values of the observed data. Mean is also known as arithmetic average.

10. Which of the following is not a measure of dispersion?
a) Range
b) Mean deviation
c) Mean
d) Standard deviation

Explanation: The mean is not a measure of dispersion. Mean is a measure of central tendency. Measures of dispersion are also known as measures of precision. The spread of the observations around the centre is termed as dispersion.

11. The peak of a curve is located at (4,4). Four students located the peak of the curve to be at (3,4), (5,4), (4,3), and (4,5). What can be the conclusion made by this study?
a) Data is precise and accurate
b) Data is precise but not accurate
c) Data is neither precise nor accurate
d) Data is not precise but accurate

Explanation: As the students located the peak of the curve near to the point (4,4) which is the ideal target value, the data set is uniform. But the values of the peak of the curve for any one student is not close to his/her friends, hence the data set is not precise.

12. If the diameter of a shaft is measured as 80 mm, 81 mm, 82 mm, 83 mm, 84 mm. What is the median of the observed values?
a) 80 mm
b) 81 mm
c) 84 mm
d) 82 mm

Explanation: The diameter of the shaft is measured as 80 mm, 81 mm, 82 mm, 83 mm, 84 mm. The number of observations is odd (5). The median is ((5+1)/2)th value. Therefore, the median is 82 mm.

13. If the diameter of a shaft is measured as 80 mm, 81 mm, 82 mm, 83 mm, 84 mm, 85 mm. What is the median of the observed values?
a) 80 mm
b) 81 mm
c) 84 mm
d) 82.5 mm

Explanation: The diameter of a shaft is measured as 80 mm, 81 mm, 82 mm, 83 mm, 84 mm, 85 mm. The number of observations is even (6). The median is the average of (6/2)th and ((6/2)+1)th value. Therefore, the median is average of 82 mm and 83 mm, which is 82.5 mm.

14. If the observed diameter of a shaft is 20 mm, 21 mm, 23 mm, 22.5 mm, 24 mm. What is the mode of the observed data?
a) 21 mm
b) There is no mode
c) 22.5 mm
d) 20 mm

Explanation: The observed diameter of a shaft is 20 mm, 21 mm, 23 mm, 22.5 mm, 24 mm. As all the values occur once, there is no mode in the observed data set values. Mode is defined as the value which occurs most the number of times.

15. The height of a tank measured by five engineers is 5 m, 4 m, 4.5 m , 4.5 m, 5 m. What is the mode of the calculated values?
a) 4.5 m
b) 4 m
c) 5 m
d) 4.5 m and 5 m

Explanation: The height of a tank measured by five engineers is 5 m, 4 m, 4.5 m, 4.5 m, 5 m. The mode of the calculated values is 4.5 m and 5 m. It is bimodal as it has two modes.

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