# Statistical Quality Control Questions and Answers – Management Aspects of Quality Improvement – 2

This set of Statistical Quality Control Questions and Answers for Freshers focuses on “Management Aspects of Quality Improvement – 2”.

1. PDSA is expanded as ____________
a) Plan-Define-Study-Analyze
b) Plan-Define-Study-Act
c) Plan-Do-Study-Act
d) Plan-Do-Study-Analyze

Explanation: PDSA cycle is termed as Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle. Sometimes, study step is called check step. So, PDSA cycle becomes PDCA cycle.

2. Which of the following is not a part of Juran Trilogy?
a) Planning
b) Control
c) Check
d) Improvement

Explanation: Juran Trilogy consists of 3 points viz. planning, control, improvement. The check step is not included in the Juran trilogy.

3. According to Armand V. Feigenbaum, Which of these is not the 3 tools of Quality improvement?
b) Quality Technology
c) Organizational commitment
d) Quality commitment

Explanation: According to Feigenbaum, the 3 tools of quality improvement are Quality leadership, quality technology, and organizational commitment.

4. ISO was founded in the year of ______
a) 1943
b) 1946
c) 1949
d) 1956

Explanation: ISO was founded in the year of 1946 in Geneva, Switzerland for development of standards for quality systems. It issued its first standards in 1987.

5. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award was created by ______
a) U.S. Congress
b) British Government
c) ISO
d) ASQ

Explanation: The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award was created by U.S. Congress in 1987. It is given to recognize U.S. organizations for performance excellence.
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6. In 3-σ quality performance, the probability of producing a conforming product is _______
a) 0.9973
b) 0.9500
c) 1
d) 0.9467

Explanation: In 3-σ quality performance, the probability of getting a product, conforming to standards, is exactly 0.9973 which is almost 2700ppm defective.

7. Using 3 sigma quality performances, we get 2700 products produced which are nonconforming. If we operate on the 3- σ performance, and we produce 100 independent product components, what is the probability of finding a product not defective?
a) 0.7891
b) 0.27
c) 0.7631
d) 0.007631

Explanation: Probability of finding an single product not defective= 1- (2700/1,000,000) = 1 – 0.0027= 0.9973
Probability of finding a single product not defective chosen from 100 independent product components
= 0.9973 x 0.9973 x 0.9973 x … x 0.9973 = 0.9973100 = 0.7631.

8. For any stable process, if the process follows 6 – sigma quality performance, how many products it will produce defective?
a) 1.9946 ppm
b) 3.4000 ppm
c) 1200 ppm
d) 934 ppm

Explanation: By reaching till the level of six-sigma quality level, we get almost 3.4 ppm defective products.

9. “Process performance is not predictable unless the process behavior is stable”.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: If the process behavior is variable, the process performance will vary accordingly. So, process performance can only be predicted when process is stable.

10. If the value-add time for a process is 10% of the process cycle time, what will be the PCE or Process Cycle efficiency of the mentioned process?
a) 10%
b) 12%
c) 23%
d) 14%

Explanation: PCE= Value-add time / Process Cycle Time = 10% Process cycle time / Process cycle time = 10%.

11. Consider a mortgage refinance operation at a bank. If the average completion rate for submitted applications is 100 completions per day, and there are 1500 applications waiting for processing, the process cycle time is ___________
a) 15 hrs
b) 15 days
c) 150 days
d) 15.33 days

Explanation: Process Cycle Time = Work-in-progress / Average completion rate = 1500/100 = 15 days.

12. Which of these is an appraisal cost?
a) Inspection and testing of incoming material
b) New product review
d) Rework

Explanation: Appraisal costs are the costs, which are associated with measuring, evaluating, or auditing products, and purchased material, to insure the conformance to standards that have been imposed.

13. Which one of them is an External failure cost?
a) Burn-in
b) Materials and the services consumed
c) Scrap
d) Indirect costs

Explanation: External failure costs are the costs occurring when the product does not perform satisfactorily after it is delivered to customers. Indirect cost is one of them.

14. Automations, computers and new machinery will solve problems.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: According to Deming, the belief that automations, computers and new machinery could be solutions to the new problems; is not good for business quality development.

15. Failure analysis is a ______ cost.
a) prevention cost
b) internal failure cost
c) appraisal cost
d) external failure cost

Explanation: The cost incurred to determine the causes of product failures is defined as failure cost and it is counted in the internal failure costs.

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