# Railway Engineering Questions and Answers – Turnouts and Trends in Turnout Design on Indian Railways

This set of Railway Engineering Objective Questions & Answers focuses on “Turnouts and Trends in Turnout Design on Indian Railways”.

1. What is the distance from the tangent point to the heel of switch is called?

Explanation: Distance measured along the line from tangent point to heel of switch is called switch lead. Curve lead is when distance is measured from tangent point to theoretical nose of crossing.

2. Which of the following is correct about heel divergence?
a) It is equal to lead of crossing
b) It is the distance between main line and turnout
c) It is the distance from tangent point to theoretical nose

Explanation: Heel divergence is the distance between main line and turnout side at heel. While Lead of crossing is equal to the value obtained by subtracting switch lead from curve lead.

3. Which is the correct formula for calculation of Radius of Turnout?
a) R = 2R1 + G
b) R = R1 + G
c) R = R1 + 0.5G
d) R = 3R1 + 2 G

Explanation: Radius of turnout is equal to sum of Radius of centre line of turnout (R1) and half of Gauge width. R can sometimes be taken equal to R1, because of high value of radius of curve.

4. Which type of chairs are used to provide a ramp to tongue rails?
b) Gauge tie chairs
c) Slide chairs
d) Stretcher bars

Explanation: Grade off chairs are provided behind the heel of switches to give a ramp to the tongue rail. Slide chairs are used to help the tongue rails move laterally.

5. What is used to prevent vertical movement between rail wing and nose of crossing?
a) Spherical washers
b) Flat bearing plates
c) Stretcher plates
d) Distance blocks

Explanation: Distance blocks with dishing fit surfaces are provided at the nose of the crossing to prevent vertical movement between rail wing and nose of crossing. Stretcher bars are provided to maintain the 2 tongue rails at an exact distance.
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6. In Coles method from where does the curvature begin on the straight track?
a) At the theoretical toe of switch
b) At the actual toe of switch
c) At theoretical nose of crossing
d) At actual nose of crossing

Explanation: Coles method is used for designing a turnout taking off form a straight track. The curvature begins from the theoretical toe of switch and ends at the theoretical nose of crossing.

7. Which of the following formula is used for the calculation of curve lead in Coles method?

Explanation: Curve lead = G cotα + G cosecα
= GN + G (1 + N2)1/2 because cotα = N
= 2GN.

8. Which of the following represent the correct number and names of location of kinks in Coles method?
a) At actual toe of switch and at heel of switch
b) At heel of switch and theoretical nose of crossing
c) At actual toe of switch, theoretical toe and heel of switch
d) At actual toe of switch, heel of switch and at first distance block of crossing

Explanation: Tongue and wing rails are generally not curved and have three kinks. They are at the actual toe of switch, at heel of switch and at the first distance block of crossing.

9. No kink is present in layout of IRS method.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The curve begins from the heel of the switch and ends at the toe of the crossing. No kink is experienced at point of crossing. Only one kink occurs which is at the toe of the switch.

10. What can be done to improve the speed of trains over turnouts?
a) Superelevation can be decreased
b) Gaps can be kept gauge face and
c) Curved switches can be provided
d) Gauge can be decreased

Explanation: At turnouts, the vehicle sometimes cannot achieve good speed because of sudden change in direction of vehicle upon entry. Long curved switches can be provided to avoid this problem.

11. Which of the following is not a feature of turnouts of European countries?
a) Provision of transition curve between toe of switch and nose of crossing
b) Long curves switches
c) Low cant deficiency
d) Curving of switches and crossings to same radius as lead curve

Explanation: In European countries speeds of more than 100kmph are permitted on turnouts. Provision of transition curve, long curve switches and curving of switches can be the features of these turnouts. Along with this higher cant deficiency is also permitted.

12. Indian Railways has finalised a design of 1 in 12 turnout for passenger yard at max permissible speed of 100kmph.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Indian Railway has finalised a design of 1 in 12 turnout for passenger yard at max permissible speed of 50kmph. A design of 1 in 24 turnout for BG with thick web tongue rails with speed potential of 160kmph is also being finalised.

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