# Petroleum Production Operations Questions and Answers – Mechanisms of Hydraulic Fracturing

This set of Petroleum Production Operations Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Mechanisms of Hydraulic Fracturing”.

1. Effective compressive stress increases when the formation has porosity and contains fluid.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The statement is false. The corrected statement is that effective compressive stress decreases when the formation has porosity and contains fluid. As pore pressure affects the matrix stress.

2. In which of the following the environmentalists are more concerned with due to fracking?
a) Seismic activity
b) Air quality
c) Endangered species
d) Groundwater

Explanation: Groundwater is more concerned with due to fracking. No one has the right to destroy the natural groundwater irrespective of whether producing oil or gas. The government has some rules and regulations which the company must follow up.

3. How can the vertical stress be calculated by considering the pore Pressures?
a) σ = 0.007ρD – Pr
b) σ = 0.07ρD
c) σ = 0.009ρD
d) σ = 0.72ρD – Pr

Explanation: The vertical stress can be calculated by the formula σ = 0.007ρD – Pr considering the pore pressures. Pore pressure affects matrix stress. Effective compressive stress decreases when the formation has porosity and contains fluid.

4. How can effective horizontal comPressive stress be calculated?
a) 0.007ρD – Pr
b) (ρv– Pr) .ν/ (ν-1)
c) 0.07ρD
d) 0.72ρD – Pr

Explanation: The effective horizontal comPressive stress can be calculated by using the formula ( ρv– Pr) .ν/ (ν-1). Where ν is the Poisson’s ratio. On laboratory-based experiments, it is found that the Poisson’s ration can range from 0.15 to 0.40.

5. What will be the vertical stress (without considering the pore pressures) if the average rock density if 100 lb/ft3 and depth is 5000 ft?
a) 3500
b) 4000
c) 3254
d) 5454

Explanation: The vertical stress can be calculated by using the formula σv = 0.007ρD i.e. σv = (0.007).(100). (5000)= 3500, without considering the pore pressures. Pore pressure affects matrix stress. Effective compressive stress decreases when the formation has porosity and contains fluid.
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