# Petroleum Production Operations Questions and Answers – Perforating – Fluids, Pressure Differential & Formation Properties

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This set of Petroleum Production Operations Questions and Answers for Experienced people focuses on “Perforating – Fluids, Pressure Differential & Formation Properties”.

1. What is the phasing shown in the diagram below?

a) 120°
b) 90°
c) 45°
d) 60°

Explanation: The phasing shown in the diagram is 600. Phasing is vital in the perforation phenomenon. Phasing tells us how the charges are radially distributed around the gun axis. It should be properly designed. The 0, 120, 180, 90, 60 degrees of phasing are generally used.

2. Consider a case, in which the actual production rate of the well is lower than that predicted based on the IPR equation, and also the bottom hole pressure measurement shows it to be lower than the expected value then what is the cause of this situation?
a) By a restriction in the wellbore
b) By formation damage
c) By an increase in reservoir pressure
d) No formation damage

Explanation: The decline in productivity can occur due to the decrease in the inherent productivity of the oil and gas well. Formation damage decreases in the inherent productivity of the well so preventive measures needs to be taken for this purpose.

3. What is the phasing shown in the diagram below?

a) 120°
b) 0°
c) 250°
d) 210°

Explanation: The phasing shown in the diagram is 120°. It is very essential in the perforation phenomenon. Phasing tells us how the charges are radially distributed around the gun axis. It should be properly designed.

4. What is the phasing shown in the diagram below?

a) 120°
b) 90°
c) 250°
d) 210°

Explanation: The phasing shown in the diagram is 90°. Phasing in perforation is the radial distribution of the charges around the gun axis. Gun phasings are commonly available as 0, 120, 180, 90, 60 degrees of phasing.

5. How can a production engineer enhance the production of a well?
a) Increasing bottom-hole flowing pressure
b) Increasing surface flowing pressure
c) Increasing reservoir pressure
d) By well stimulation

Explanation: A production engineer can enhance the production of a well by well stimulation techniques. There are several types of well stimulation e.g Matrix Acidizing, Hydraulic Fracturing, Acid fracturing. In Hydraulic fracturing fractures are created in the formation to create channels, in Matrix Acidizing acids are pumped down to the formation to dissolve the unnecessary slugs and in case of acid fracturing, acids are pumped down with pressure more than the fracture pressure.

6. What is the phasing shown in the diagram below?

a) 120°
b) 90°
c) 45°
d) 60°

Explanation: The phasing shown in the diagram is 450. Phasing in perforation is the radial distribution of the charges around the axis of the perforating gun. The design of the phasing around the gun axis plays a vital role in the production process. So, optimum phasing has to be chosen for better production.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Petroleum Production Operations.