# Petroleum Production Operations Questions and Answers – Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks

This set of Petroleum Production Operations Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks”.

1. In the P-T envelope the A point is known as which of the following name?

a) Critical point
b) Non-critical point
c) Iso-bar point
d) Iso-thermal point

Explanation: Point A is known as a Critical point. It is that point in the pressure-temperature diagram at which all the intensive properties of the gas and liquid phases are equal. At the critical point, the corresponding temperature and pressure are called the critical temperature (Tc) and critical pressure Pc respectively.

2. The maximum pressure above no gas can be formed regardless of the temperature is known as _____
a) Cricondenbar
b) Critical point
c) Absolute point
d) Bubble point

Explanation: The maximum pressure above no gas can be formed regardless of the temperature it is known as Cricondenbar. The critical point in the pressure-temperature diagram is that the point at which all the intensive properties of the gas and liquid phases are equal. Bubble point is that point (Temperature at a given pressure) at which first gas bubble forms.

3. Water cut is given by which of the following formula?
a) fw = 1 ∕ (1+(KoBww) ∕ (KwBoo))
b) fw = 1 ∕ (1+(KwBow) ∕ (KwBoo))
c) fw = 1+(KwBow) ∕ (KwBoo)
d) fw = 1+(KoBww) ∕ (KwBoo)

Explanation: Water cut is the ratio of water volume to the total volume of fluid produced. Before sending the crude to the refinery the water cut should be minimal. If the water content is high then the calorific value will be low so there are various methods to separate the water in the separator before sending the crude to the refinery which is being done in conjunction of the Free Water Knock Out system with separator.

4. As per Darcy’s law, the flow rate is directly proportional to the pressure difference.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Yes it is true. Darcy’s law is basically an equation that tells us the information of fluid flow through a porous medium. Henry Darcy formulated the equation. Permeability, Area, Length, Viscosity are the other factors that affect Darcy’s equation apart from Pressure difference.

5. Which of the following is incorrect for the validation of Darcy’s law?
a) The fluid flow should be laminar
b) The fluid flow is continuous and steady state
c) The fluid is incompressible
d) The permeability should be less than 20 md

Explanation: The Darcy’s law is valid for laminar, continuous and steady-state flow. The density of the fluid is to be constant i.e. the fluid should be incompressible. This law is widely used for flow through microchannels.
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6. Connate water saturation is the amount of water which gets adsorbed on the walls of the porous medium.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Yes it is true. The water that is there inside the formation is of higher salinity. Connate water saturation is the lowest water saturation found inside the rock. On the other hand, irreducible water saturation is that the lowest water saturation found after the water gets displaced by other fluids.

Sanfoundry Global Education & Learning Series – Petroleum Production Operations.