# Pairing Heap Multiple Choice Questions and Answers (MCQs)

This set of Data Structures & Algorithms Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Pairing Heap”.

1. What is the reason for the efficiency of a pairing heap?
a) simplicity
b) time-efficient
c) space-efficient

Explanation: The reason for the simplicity of a pairing heap is its simplicity as it is simpler and outperform other heap structures.

2. How is a pairing heap represented?
a) binary tree
b) fibonacci tree
c) heap ordered tree
d) treap

Explanation: A pairing heap is represented as a heap-ordered tree and the analysis of pairing heap is open.

3. The actual pairing heap implementation uses the right child and left child representation.
a) true
b) false

Explanation: The actual pairing heap implementation uses a left child and right sibling representation since it follows heap order property.

4. Which node contains a pointer to its parent?
a) root node
b) right most child
c) left most child
d) left sibling

Explanation: A node that is a leftmost node contains a pointer to its parent, otherwise, the node is a right sibling.

5. Which of the heaps is implemented by the following figure?

a) fibonacci heaps
b) pairing heap
c) skew heap
d) leftist heap

Explanation: The above figure is a representation of a pairing heap because it has left children and right siblings.
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6. What is the basic operation performed in a pairing heap?
a) merge
b) deletion
c) insertion
d) swapping

Explanation: The basic operation performed in a pairing heap is merging. Insertion is also done by merging.

7. If there are c children of the root, how many calls to the merge procedure is required to reassemble the heap?
a) c
b) c+1
c) c-1
d) 1

Explanation: If there are c children of the root, then c-1 merges are required to reassemble the pairing heap.

8. Which of the following methods is the best choice for complex applications?
a) binary heap
b) d-heap
c) treap
d) pairing heap

Explanation: Pairing heap is the best choice for complex applications because it is simple and better than the others.

9. Pairing heaps time complexity was inspired by that of?
a) splay tree
b) treap
c) red-black tree
d) avl tree

Explanation: The pairing heaps insertion, deletion and search time complexity was initially inspired by that of splay trees.

10. The roots of the elements of the subtrees are smaller than the root of the heap.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The heap ordering property requires that all the root elements of the subtrees in the list are not smaller than the root element of the heap.

11. The amortized time efficiency for performing deletion of a minimum element is?
a) O(N)
b) O(log N)
c) O(N2)
d) O(M log N)

Explanation: The amortized time efficiency for performing deletion of a minimum element is mathematically found to be O(log N).

12. Out of the following given options, which is the fastest algorithm?
a) fibonacci heap
b) pairing heap
c) d-ary heap
d) binary heap

Explanation: Although pairing heap is an efficient algorithm, it is worse than the Fibonacci heap. Also, pairing heap is faster than d-ary heap and binary heap.

13. What is the run time efficiency of an insertion algorithm?
a) O(N)
b) O(log N)
c) O(N2)
d) O(M log N)

Explanation: The run time efficiency of an insertion algorithm in a pairing heap is mathematically found to be O(N).

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