# Mechatronics Questions and Answers – Design – High Speed Tilting Trains

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This set of Mechatronics Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Design – High Speed Tilting Trains”.

1. Which type of force does the tilting train produce?
a) Centrifugal force
b) Gravitational force
c) Viscous force
d) Frictional force

Explanation: When a train goes into a curve, it produces substantial centrifugal force towards the outside of the curve. By tilting the train, centrifugal force is balanced by a force into the inner curve and passenger discomfort is reduced. Among the other forces mentioned, Gravitational force of the train is balanced to the normal force, Frictional and Viscous forces are not experienced by the tilting train.

2. What are the properties of naturally tilted trains?
a) Using controlling technologies such as sensors
b) Use of electric actuators
c) Use of hydraulic actuators
d) Working based on the law of tilt centre located above the centre of gravity

Explanation: The naturally tilted trains work on a principle that law of tilt centre located above the centre of gravity of the car body. The lower parts of the car body swing outwards under the influence of lateral acceleration in the curve. Using controlling technologies such as sensors, Use of electric actuators, Use of hydraulic actuators are the properties of actively tilled trains.

3. Modern tilting trains allows operators to achieve higher speed on existing curve routes, without costly track improvements.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: Modern tilting trains allows operators to achieve higher speed on existing curve routes, without costly track improvements or the need to consider completely new high-speed lines.

4. Which systems are used for tilting actions of trains?
a) Servo-hydraulic actuators system
b) Accelerometer
c) Controllers
d) Actuators

Explanation: Servo-hydraulic actuators system is used for the tilting mechanism of trains. The accelerometer is used as tilting booster. Controllers and actuators are the parts of the control system of the tilting trains.

5. What is the use of the accelerometer in Control system of tilting trains?
a) Used for tilting actions of trains
b) To measure lateral acceleration and provide negative feedback
c) Balancing the centrifugal force of the train
d) To make active tilting possible

Explanation: Accelerometer in Control system of tilting trains is used to measure lateral acceleration and provide negative feedback. Servo-hydraulic actuators system is used for the tilting mechanism of trains. By tilting the train, the centrifugal force is balanced. Active tilting is possible through control technology with sensors, actuators, hydraulic and electric actuators.
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6. The car body is rolled outwards during curve negotiation.
a) True
b) False

Explanation: The car body is rolled inwards during curve negotiation in order to reduce the lateral acceleration perceived by the passenger. A reduction of car body lateral acceleration through an increased track and car body tilt is associated with a slightly increased vertical acceleration.

7. What is the main feedback component of a bolster feedback system?
a) Controllers
b) Body
c) Actuator
d) Bogie accelerometer

Explanation: Bogie accelerometer is the main feedback component of a bolster feedback system. The accelerometer in Control system of tilting trains is used to measure lateral acceleration and provide negative feedback. Controllers, body and actuators are the part of the block diagram of the bolster feedback system.

8. By how much percentage is the tilt compensation factor multiplied in order to reduce the lateral acceleration of the car body?
a) 100%
b) 50%
c) 70%
d) 60%

Explanation: The accelerometer to the non-tilting part of the vehicle to measure how much tilt is needed to reduce the car body lateral acceleration to zero for that multiplied by tilt compensation factors by 100%.

9. Which type of forces are experienced by the passengers when the train passes through horizontal curves?
a) Centrifugal force
b) Lateral forces
c) Viscous force
d) Frictional force

Explanation: A train and its passengers are subjected to lateral forces when the train passes through horizontal curves. When a train goes into a curve, it produces substantial centrifugal force towards the outside of the curve by a force into the inner curve and passenger discomfort is reduced. Among the other forces mentioned, Frictional and Viscous forces are not experienced by the tilting train.