Mechanical Metallurgy Questions and Answers – Fracture Types in Metal – 2

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This set of Mechanical Metallurgy Quiz focuses on “Fracture Types in Metal – 2”.

1. The theoretical cohesive strength of brittle material is approximately equal to ________
a) E
b) E/2
c) E/π
d) E/2π
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The approximation for the theoretical strength of brittle material is given as:
σmax=λE/2πao;
where σmax= theoretical cohesive strength
λ= Lattice wavelength of the curve
ao = lattice parameter
E = Young modulus.
So taking approximation that λ=2ao and substituting in the equation, we get
σmax = E/π
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2. Determine the cohesive strength of glass fibre, if E = 90 GPa, Surface energy = 1.2 Jm-1/2 and a0=0.18 nm?
a) 29.5 GPa
b) 10 GPa
c) 24.5 GPa
d) 150 MPa
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The cohesive strength is equal to:
{Eϒs/ao}1/2
Where; ϒs=surface energy, ao=lattice parameter
90*109*1.2/0.18*10-9 = (600*1018)1/2
24.49*109 = 24.49 GPa.

3. The maximum stress on the tip of the crack of length 2c and radius of curvature of the tip ρt is given as ____
a) σmax=\(σ[1+2(\frac{c}{ρt})^{1/2}]\)
b) σmax=\(σ[1+(\frac{c}{ρt})^{1/2}]\)
c) σmax=\(σ[2(\frac{c}{ρt})^{1/2}]\)
d) σmax=\(σ[(\frac{c}{ρt})^{1/2}]\)
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The maximum stress on the tip of the crack of length 2c and radius of curvature of the tip ρt is given as;
σmax=\(σ[1+2(\frac{c}{ρt})^{1/2}]\)
This can be approximated as=\(2σ(\frac{c}{ρt})^{1/2}.\)

4. The fracture on the sharpest crack tip will be equal to \((\frac{Eϒ_s}{4c})^{1/2}\) .
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The maximum stress on the crack tip is given as:
σmax=\(σ[1+2(\frac{c}{ρt})^{1/2}]\)
\(2σ(\frac{c}{ρt})^{1/2}\)
Now substitute the value of σmax=\((\frac{Eϒ_s}{a_o})^{1/2}\)
Equate both the equation:
σfracture=\((\frac{Eϒ_ρ}{4ac})^{1/2}\)
The sharpest possible crack tip will be the one where the crack tip curvature is equal to the interatomic spacing
σfracture=\((\frac{Eϒ}{4c})^{1/2}\).

5. Calculate the fracture stress of brittle material with the following properties.
E=200GPa, Surface energy=1.2 Jm-2, c=0.5*103nm
a) 346.4 MPa
b) 648.9 MPa
c) 589.9 MPa
d) 5898.8 MPa
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The fracture stress will be equal to; σfracture=\((\frac{Eϒ}{4c})^{1/2}\)
Substitute the values in the equation:
200*109*1.2/4*0.5*10-6
34.64*107
346.4 MPa.
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6. The statement of Griffith theory of brittle fracture says that “A crack will propagate when the decrease in elastic strain energy is at least equal to the energy required to create the new surface”.
a) True
b) false
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The idea behind the Griffith theory is that every material contains micro-cracks and in the local region of crack tip, the stress concentration causes the stress value high enough to cross the theoretical fracture stress of the material.

7. Which of the following statement is correct?
a) Crack inside the material of length 2c and surface crack length c will have some impact in reducing the strength of the material
b) Crack inside the material of length c, and surface crack length 2c will have the same effect on reducing the strength of the material
c) Crack inside the material of length 4c and surface crack length c will have an equal impact in reducing the strength of the material
d) Crack inside the material of length c, and surface crack length 4c will have same impact in reducing the strength of the material
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Both the crack will have the same effect in reducing the strength of the material.
mechanical-metallurgy-questions-answers-fracture-types-metal-2-q7

8. If the crack length inside the material is increased by 4 times. The fracture strength will ___________
a) decrease by 4 times
b) decrease by 2 times
c) increase by 4 times
d) increase by 2 times
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: According to Griffiths theory;
\(σ=(\frac{2Eϒ}{πc})^{1/2}\)
Here c indicates the length of the crack.
So if the crack length in increase by 4 times, strength will reduce by the square root of 4 times. 2 times.

9. Griffith’s theory for a thick plate predicts the fracture as_________
a) \(σ=(\frac{2Eϒ}{(1-v)πc)})^{1/2}\)
b) \(σ=(\frac{2Eϒ}{πc})^{1/2}\)
c) \(σ=(\frac{2Eϒ}{πc})^{1/2}\)
d) \(σ=(\frac{2Eϒ(1-v)}{πc})^{1/2}\)
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: For a thick plate the condition of plane strain applies so the fracture stress changes to;
\(σ=(\frac{2Eϒ}{(1-v)πc})^{1/2}\)
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10. The sensitivity of the fracture of the brittle solid to surface condition has been termed as the ____________
a) Bauschinger effect
b) Doppler effect
c) Joffe effect
d) Polarity effect
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: The sensitivity of the fracture of the brittle solid to the surface condition has been termed as the Joffe effect. So if the surface energy of fracturing material is reduced the required stress to cause fracture will also decrease. This is why surface agent is used drilling the rock which the surface energy of the stone surface.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn