Manufacturing Processes Questions and Answers – Electrochemical Etching – 2

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This set of Manufacturing Processes Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Electrochemical Etching – 2”.

1. Etching process should be selective to the material that has to be removed.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Etching process should be selective to the material that has to be removed because this helps to protect the material under the mask (within limits of isotropic etching) and also the mask material itself (oxide, nitride, or resists).
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2. _______________ is commonly used as a mask for Si etching.
a) Silicon dioxide
b) Silicon nitride
c) Silicone gel
d) Silicon sulphate
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: If silicon nitride is used as mask, its etch rate, under the same conditions, is 1 nm/hr., nearly 105 times slower than the etch rate for Si (100) at 90 °C using 30 % KOH which is ~ 100 µm/hr. Thus, silicon nitride is commonly used as a mask for Si etching (especially for making Si cantilever based devices).

3. The etching rate and time are crucial to prevent over etching.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: The etching rate and time are crucial to prevent over etching since resist removal can cause damage to portions of the wafer that have to be protected from the etchant.
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4. Silicon dioxide etch rate at 90 °C using 30 % KOH is approximately ______________
a) 1 µm/hr
b) 5 µm/hr
c) 10 µm/hr
d) 100 µm/hr
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Silicon dioxide etch rate at 90 °C using 30 % KOH is ~ 1 µm/hr. So, using silicon oxide as a mask for Si etching will not be good enough or a very thick oxide layer is required.

5. For silicon oxide etching, usually ______________ is used.
a) nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid (HF)
b) mixture of HF and ammonium fluoride (NH4F)
c) H3PO4
d) Mixture of HPO4, HNO (nitroxyl), Acetic acid, water
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: For silicon oxide etching, usually a mixture of HF and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) is used, that produces a etch rate of ~0.1 µm/hr at room temperature. This mixture does not etch Si, so it provides very good selectivity.
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6. For ____________ usually a strong acid like hot phosphoric acid is used at high temperatures.
a) silicon carbide
b) poly Si
c) silicon nitride
d) aluminium
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: For silicon nitride, usually a strong acid like hot phosphoric acid is used at high temperatures (180°C) since it is a very good passivating layer and hard to remove under normal conditions.

7. Dry etching produces more vertical side walls compared to wet etching.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Dry etching, as the name suggest, is a removal of material in the absence of solvent. Because of the anisotropic nature of etching, dry etching produces more vertical side walls compared to wet etching, but the removal rate is slower.
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8. In dry etching ______________ are used for removing material.
a) solvent etchants
b) gaseous etchants
c) carbide tools
d) powder etchants
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Dry etching is removal of material in the absence of solvent. Here, etchant gases are the primary medium for the removal of material. There are three main types of dry etching-
1. Plasma etch
2. Ion beam milling
3. Reactive ion etch.

9. In plasma etch, the chemical etchant is introduced in the gas phase.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In plasma etch, the chemical etchant is introduced in the gas phase. For etching silicon oxide, CF4 (tetrafluoromethane) is used. The chamber is first evacuated before introducing the gas. Radio frequency (RF) electrodes are then used to generate the plasma that ionizes the gas.
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10. Plasma etching provides poor thickness control.
a) True
b) False
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: In plasma etching, the ionised gas attacks the oxide layer, removing the layer. Etch rates in plasma etch are ~1—10 µm/hr, much smaller than wet etching. So, it is more suitable for thin layers, but it also provides greater thickness control.

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Manish Bhojasia - Founder & CTO at Sanfoundry
Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He is Linux Kernel Developer & SAN Architect and is passionate about competency developments in these areas. He lives in Bangalore and delivers focused training sessions to IT professionals in Linux Kernel, Linux Debugging, Linux Device Drivers, Linux Networking, Linux Storage, Advanced C Programming, SAN Storage Technologies, SCSI Internals & Storage Protocols such as iSCSI & Fiber Channel. Stay connected with him @ LinkedIn | Youtube | Instagram | Facebook | Twitter