Manufacturing Engineering Questions & Answers – Crystallography-1

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This set of Manufacturing Engineering Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on “Crystallography-1”.

1. Which of the following has a non-crystalline structure?
a) Iron
b) Quartz
c) Silica glass
d) Tungsten
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In general, metals exist in a crystalline form. Iron and Tungsten being metals takes up body centered cubic crystalline structure at room temperature. The ceramic compound–silica (SiO2), can exist either in a crystalline form or in a non-crystalline form (amorphous form). While quartz, tridymite and cristobalite are known as its crystalline forms which are being differentiated based on SiO4 tetrahedra linkage style, silica’s non-crystalline (amorphous) form is just called as the silica glass.
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2. Which of the following has less crystallinity?
a) Iron
b) Nickel
c) High density polythene
d) Low density polythene
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: It is clear that, iron and nickel being metals possesses a crystalline form, whereas high density polyethylene (HDPE) and low-density ethylene (LDPE) are a class of polymers. These both thermoplastics are semi-crystalline nature, out of which LDPE exhibits a crystallinity of about 50-60% and HDPE of about 90%. Some people may term HDPE as crystalline, but it is more appropriate to restrict it in the category of semi-crystalline class.

3. Which of the following is a characteristic of crystalline structure?
a) High density
b) Low density
c) Range of melting point
d) Short range of order
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: A crystalline structure has very close packing of atoms thus giving rise to high density to material it possesses when compared to its non-crystalline form. For example, quartz being the crystalline form of silica has a density of about 2.65 gm/cm3, whereas its ally–non-crystalline form silica glass has a density of 2.20 gm/cm3. For reference, the other properties being differentiated between crystalline and non-crystalline forms are tabulated below.

Differentiating Parameter Structure
Crystalline Structure Non-Crystalline Structure
Geometry Well defined geometrical shape Random shape
Melting point Definite melting point Rage of melting point
Density High density when compared to non-crystalline structure due to strong primary atomic bonding. Low density when compared to crystalline structure due to weak secondary atomic bonding
Range of order Long range of order (periodicity) Short range of order (periodicity)
XRD Diffraction pattern Sharp diffraction pattern Broad hump
Examples Iron, Steel, HDPE, Quartz, etc. Metallic glass, silica glass, LDPE, etc.
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4. Which of the following is characteristic of non-crystalline structures?
a) Long range of periodicity
b) Well defined structure and geometry
c) Low density
d) Sharp diffraction pattern
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In non-crystalline structure, there is no definite packing of atoms, which makes them to possess any random shape, further these atoms are being bonded by weak secondary bonds with Van der Wall’s forces, thus giving a low density to material.

5. Which of the following factor is not responsible for the formation of a non-crystalline structure?
a) Atomic packing has open structure
b) Primary bonds are absent
c) Formation of 1-dimensional chain molecule
d) Strong secondary bond
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: A non-crystalline structure is being formed by a secondary bonds or molecular bonds are formed as a result of weak Van der Wall’s of attractions which exist between various atoms. These intermolecular bonds can be further classified as dispersion bonds, dipole bonds, hydrogen bonds, which are all should be considered as weak secondary bonds.
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6. Which of the following axis system is being satisfied by cubic crystal system?
a) a = b = c, α = β = γ = 90o
b) a ≠ b = c, α = β = γ = 90o
c) a = b ≠ c, α = β = γ = 90o
d) a = b = c, α ≠ β = ϒ = 90o
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Simple cubic have all sides equal and all angles equal. For reference, table of 7 Bravais lattices are tabulated below:

S.No. Crystal System Conventional Unit Cell Axis System
Lengths Angles
1 Cubic a = b = c α = β = γ = 90o
2 Tetragonal a = b ≠ c α = β = γ = 90o
3 Orthorhombic a ≠ b ≠ c α = β = γ = 90o
4 Rhombohedral (Trigonal) a = b = c α = β = γ ≠ 90o
5 Hexagonal a = b ≠ c α = β = 90o, γ = 120o
6 Monoclinic a ≠ b ≠ c α = γ = 90o ≠ β

7 Triclinic a ≠ b ≠ c α ≠ β ≠ γ ≠ 90o

*Note—Order trick: C-T-O-R-H-M-T (Decreasing symmetry)

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7. Which of the following axis system is being satisfied by tetragonal crystal system?
a) a = b = c, α = β = ϒ = 90o
b) a ≠ b ≠ c, α = β = ϒ = 90o
c) a = b ≠ c, α = β = ϒ = 90o
d) a = b = c, α ≠ β = ϒ = 90o
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Tetragon has two sides equal and all angles equal.

8. Which of the following axis system is being satisfied by orthorhombic crystal system?
a) a = b = c, α = β = γ = 90o
b) a ≠ b ≠ c, α = β = γ = 90o
c) a = b ≠ c, α = β = γ = 90o
d) a = b = c, α ≠ β = γ = 90o
View Answer

Answer: b
Explanation: Orthorhombic have all sides unequal and all angles equal to a degree.
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9. Which of the following axis system is being satisfied by rhombohedral (trigonal) crystal system?
a) a = b = c, α = β = γ = 90o
b) a ≠ b = c, α = β = γ = 90o
c) a = b ≠ c, α = β = γ = 90o
d) a = b = c, α = β = γ ≠ 90o
View Answer

Answer: d
Explanation: Rhombohedra have all sides equal and all angles equal but not 90o.

10. Which of the following axis system is being satisfied by hexagonal crystal system?
a) a = b ≠ c, α = β = 90o, ϒ = 120o
b) a ≠ b = c, α = β = ϒ = 90o
c) a = b ≠ c, α = β = ϒ = 90o
d) a = b = c, α ≠ β = ϒ = 90o
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: Hexagonal have two sides equal and two angles equal to 90o and one angle equal to 120o.

11. Which of the following axis system is being satisfied by monoclinic crystal system?
a) a = b = c, α = β = 90o ≠ ϒ
b) a ≠ b = c, α = β = ϒ = 90o
c) a ≠ b ≠ c, α = β = 90o ≠ ϒ
d) a = b = c, α ≠ β = ϒ = 90o
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Monoclinic have all sides unequal and two angles equal to 90o.

12. Which of the following axis system is being satisfied by triclinic crystal system?
a) a = b = c, α = β = ϒ = 90o
b) a ≠ b = c, α = β = ϒ = 90o
c) a ≠ b ≠ c, α ≠ β ≠ ϒ ≠ 90o
d) a = b = c, α ≠ β = ϒ = 90o
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: Triclinic structures have all sides unequal and all angles are also unequal.

13. Which one of the following is most symmetrical?
a) Simple cubic cell
b) Hexagonal
c) Triclinic
d) Tetragonal
View Answer

Answer: a
Explanation: In triclinic crystal system, we observe all the sides and angle to equal to each other (a = b = c and α = β = γ = 90o), thus giving highest symmetry (four 3-fold symmetry) among all 7 Bravais Lattices.

14. Which one of the following is least symmetrical?
a) Tetragonal
b) Simple cubic
c) Triclinic
d) Monoclinic
View Answer

Answer: c
Explanation: In triclinic crystal system, we observe all the sides and angle to unequal to each other (a ≠ b ≠ c and α ≠ β ≠ γ ≠ 90o), thus giving least symmetry (1-fold symmetry) among all 7 Bravais Lattices.

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Manish Bhojasia, a technology veteran with 20+ years @ Cisco & Wipro, is Founder and CTO at Sanfoundry. He lives in Bangalore, and focuses on development of Linux Kernel, SAN Technologies, Advanced C, Data Structures & Alogrithms. Stay connected with him at LinkedIn.

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